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  Title: Sensors and Applications in Measuring and Automation Control Systems (Book Series: Advances in Sensors: Reviews, Vol. 4 )

  Editor: Sergey Y. Yurish

  Publisher: International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing

  Formats: paperback (print book) and printable pdf Acrobat (e-book) 504 pages

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  Pubdate: 30 December 2016

  ISBN: 978-84-617-7596-5

  e-ISBN: 978-84-617-7597-2

 

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 Book Description

 

 

The fourth volume titled ‘Sensors and Applications in Measuring and Automation Control Systems’ contains twenty four chapters with sensor related state-of-the-art reviews and descriptions of latest advances in sensor related area written by 81 authors from academia and industry from 5 continents and 20 countries: Australia, Austria, Brazil, Finland, France, Japan, India, Iraq, Italia, México, Morocco, Portugal, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, UK, Ukraine and USA. Many of contributors of this Book Series are members of the editorials board of different journals related to the field and some of them are International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) members.

 

Like the first three volumes of this Book Series, the fourth volume also has been organized by topics of high interest. In order to offer a fast and easy reading of each topic, every chapter in this book is independent and self-contained. All chapters have the same structure: first an introduction to specific topic under study; second particular field description including sensing or/and measuring applications. Each of chapter is ending by well selected list of references with books, journals, conference proceedings and web sites.

This book ensures that our readers will stay at the cutting edge of the field and get the right and effective start point and road map for the further researches and developments. By this way, they will be able to save more time for productive research activity and eliminate routine work.

 

Built upon the Book Series ‘Advances in Sensors: Reviews’ - a premier sensor review source, it presents an overview of highlights in the field and becomes. Coverage includes current developments in physical sensors and transducers, chemical sensors, biosensors, sensing materials, signal conditioning, energy harvesters and sensor networks. Sure, we would have liked to include even more topics, but it is difficult to cover everything due to reasonable practical restrictions. With this unique combination of information in each volume, the ‘Advances in Sensors: Reviews’ Book Series will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

 

 

Contents:

 

Contents
Contributors
Preface


Chapter 1. Irregular Arrays of Silver Nanoparticles on Multilayer Substrates and Their Optical Properties
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Experimental
1.3. Ag Nanoparticles on a Dielectric Substrate
1.3.1. Spectra of Ag Nanoparticles on Quartz Substrate
1.3.2. Analysis of Obtained Results
1.3.3. Reflection of Ag Nanoparticles on Si Substrate
1.4. Ag Nanoparticles on Multilayer Substrates
1.5. UV Features of the Spectra
1.6. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 2. Structural, Optical and Light Sensing Properties of Carbon-ZnO Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Experiments
2.2.1. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
2.2.2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
2.2.3. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)
2.2.4. Ultraviolet/Visible/Infrared (UV/Vis/IR) Spectrophotometer
2.2.5. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry RBS
2.2.6. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE)
2.3. Results
2.3.1. Morphological Properties
2.3.2. Atomic Force Microscopy
2.3.3. Structural Properties
2.3.4. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy
2.3.5. Ultra Violet and Visible Sensing
2.4. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 3. Fiber Optic Sensing Based on Multimode Interference
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Operating Principle of MMI-based Fiber Device
3.3. Historic Overview of MMI-based Fiber Sensing
3.4. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 4. Enlarged Spectral Sensitivity Outside the Visible Spectrum in Tandem a-SiC:H pi’n/pin Photodiodes
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Experimental Details
4.2.1. Device Configuration
4.2.2. Device Operation
4.3. Bias Controlled Selector
4.3.1. Optical Bias Controlled Filter
4.3.2. Nonlinear Spectral Gain
4.4. Wavelength Division Multiplexer
4.4.1. Input Channels
4.4.2. MUX Signal
4.5. Optoelectronic Model
4.6. Decoding Algorithm
4.7. Applications
4.7.1. VIS/NIR Wavelength Selector based on a Multilayer pi’n/pin a-SiC:H Optical Filter
4.7.2. Indoors Localisation Using Visible Light Communication
4.7.2.1. Positioning System Design
4.7.2.2. Optoelectronic Characteristics
4.7.2.3. Analysis of Transient Signals from RGB White LEDs
4.7.2.4. Decoding Strategy
4.7.2.5. Navigation Performance
4.7.2.6. Summary
4.8. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 5.Trends in Improving the Accuracy of SPR-Devices
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Principle of Operation of Devices Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance and Main Areas of their Application
5.3. The Way to Increase the Wavelength of Radiation Exciting SPR
5.4. Improvement of Fabrication and Construction of the Device Sensitive Element
5.5. Decreasing the Influence of Temperature Factor on Results of Measuring
the Analyte Refraction Index
5.6. Numeric Methods for Enhancing the Measurement Accuracy of SPR-Devices
5.7. Conclusions
References

Chapter 6. GaPO4-based SHAPM Sensors for Liquid Environments
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Theoretical Investigation of the SHAPMs Propagation in y-rot GaPO4
6.3. Phase Velocity and Electromechanical Coupling Dispersion Curves
6.4. The Temperature Coefficient of Delay
6.5. Viscous Liquid
6.6. Conclusion
Acknowledgement
References

Chapter 7. Biosensors based on Magnetic Nanoparticles
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Magnetic Nanoparticles
7.3. Biosensors
7.3.1. GMR Microfluidic Biosensors
7.3.2. Working Principle
7.3.3. Results
7.3.4. Magnetic Microfluidic Counter
7.3.5. Working Principl
7.3.6. Results
7.4. Cancer Cell Trapping
7.4.1. Working Principle
7.4.2. Results
7.5. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 8. On-Chip Blood Coagulation Sensor
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Design
8.3. Results and Discussion
8.4. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 9. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: A Novel Tool for Biomedical Applications
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Mechanism of SERS
9.3. Plasmonic Nanostructures for SERS
9.4. SERS Based Biomolecular Detection
9.4.1. SERS Based Biosensing
9.4.2. Glucose Sensing
9.4.3. SERS Markers for DNA/RNA Detection
9.4.4. Immunoglobin Protein Detection Based on SERS
9.5. Conclusion and Future Prospects
References

Chapter 10. An Advanced Sensors-based Platform for the Development of Agricultural Sprayers
10.1. Concepts of Pesticide Application Technology in Agriculture
10.2. An Advanced Sensors-Based Platform and Its Conception
10.3. Sensors-Basis Arrangement and Examples of Operation
10.3.1. Mathematical Models for the Injection, Spraying and Concentration Systems
10.3.2. Proporcional, Integral and Derivative Controller
10.3.3. Model Based Predictive Controller
10.3.3.1. Implementing the MPCs
10.3.4. Experimental Results for Variable Rate Application Based on Infestation Maps
10.4. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 11. Design, Implementation and Characterization of Time-to-Digital Converter on Low-Cost FPGA
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Time-to-digital Converters Families and their Functioning Principle
11.2.1. First Generation of TDCs or Analog Time-to-Digital Converters
11.2.2. Second Generation of TDCs or Fully Digital TDCs
11.2.2.1. Functional Principle of Digital TDCs or Nutt Method
11.2.2.2. Structure of the Studied TDC
11.3. Design of the Studied TDC
11.3.1. Design and Validation of the Elementary Cell
11.3.2. Proposed Design Methodology
11.3.2.1. Using Adders and Carry Chain Logic
11.3.2.2. Using Chip Planner
11.4. Implementation of a 42 ps TDC on a Cyclone IV FPGA
11.4.1. Experimental Measurement Conditions
11.4.2. Encoding Fine Counter Output Binary Stream
11.4.3. Effect of Constraining Cell Placement by the Chip Planer Tool
11.4.4. Jitter, INL and DNL Evaluation
11.5. TDC Characterization and Correction with Poisson Process Events
11.5.1. TDC Characterization
11.5.2. Correction Methodology
11.6. TCSPC Measurement of Fluorescence Lifetime
11.7. Conclusion
References

Chapter 12. New Approaches to Extend Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Optimal Placement of Sensor Nodes and Using Duty Cycle Technique
12.2. Related Works
12.3. Proposals for New Strategies to Optimize Lifetime in WSN with Respect
to Coverage and Network Connectivity Constraints
12.3.1. Modeling Components and Parameters of the WSN
12.3.1.1. Network Model
12.3.1.2. Modeling the Wireless Communication
12.3.1.3. Modelling the Coverage
12.3.1.4. Modelling the Network Connectivity
12.3.1.5. Sensing Model
12.3.2. Proposal of a New Placement Method Sensor Nodes Based on Grids
12.3.3. Presentation and Analytical Evaluations of MAC-SA
12.3.3.1. Overview of MAC-SA
12.3.3.2. Analytical Evaluations of MAC-SA
12.4. Evaluations of MAC-SA by Simulation
12.4.1. Description of Simulation Parameters
12.4.2. Performance Evaluations of MAC-SA
12.4.2.1. Simulation Results
12.5. Conclusion and Perspectives
References

Chapter 13. Distributed Algorithm for Multiple Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Combined Measurements
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Problem Formulation
13.3. Distributed Localization
13.4. Complexity Analysis
13.5. Performance Results
13.6. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 14. Environmental Data Recovery Techniques and its Applications using Polynomial Regression in the Sensor Network Systems
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Enviromental Data Recovery Using Polynomial Regression
14.2.1. Enviromental Data Recoveries Using Polynomial Regression
14.2.2. Data Reliability Evaluation Flow
14.2.2.1. Evaluation Flow
14.2.2.2. Parameter Setting
14.3. Data Reliability of Periodic Characteristics
14.3.1. Application Range of the Polynomial Regression
14.3.2. Effect of Sensor Node Number
14.3.3. Effect of Data Loss
14.4. Reliability in the Frequency Domain
14.4.1. FFT Analysis
14.4.2. Reliability in the FFT Analysis
14.4.2.1. Effect of Input Signal Cycle (wavelength)
14.4.2.2. Effect of the Number of Sensor Node
14.4.2.3. Frequency Spectrum
14.5. Recovery for Enviromental Arbitrary Characteristics
14.6. Application Results for Actual Measured Data
14.6.1. Temperature Data in Time Domain
14.6.2. Acceleration Data in Frequency Domain
14.7. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 15. Robust Header Compression for the Internet of Things
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Packet Compression Techniques
15.3. Development of Header Compression
15.3.1. Van Jacobson Header Compression (CTCP)
15.3.2. IP Header Compression (IPHC)
15.3.3. Compressing RTP Headers (CRTP)
15.3.4. Robust Header Compression (ROHC)
15.3.5. IPv6 Over Low Power Wireless Area Networks (6LoWPAN)
15.3.6. Discussion on 6LoWPAN and ROHC
15.4. IoT Compression Solution with ROHC
15.4.1. Test Bed and Testing Scenario
15.4.2. Header Compression Results
15.4.2.1. Packet Size
15.4.2.2. Delay and Energy Consumption
15.5. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 16. Multifunction Sensing System for Wireless Monitoring of Chronic Wounds in Healthcare
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Methods and Materials
16.2.1. Selection and Calibration of Sensors
16.2.2. Flexible Wireless Sensing System
16.2.3. Interfacing the Sensors with the Radio Transmitter
16.2.4. Information Display Module
16.3. Experiments and Results
16.3.1. Establishing Reliability of Measurements
16.3.2. Measurements at Ankle Level with a 4-layer Bandage
16.4. Interpretation
16.5. Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References

Chapter 17. Direction of Arrival Using Smart Antenna Array
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Smart Antenna Architecture
17.3. DOA Algorithms Using Uniform Linear Array
17.3.1. Mathematical Model for MUSIC Algorithm
17.3.2. Mathematical Model for ESPRIT Algorithm
17.3.3. Mathematical Model for Maximum-Likelihood Algorithm
17.3.4. Matrix Pencil Method
17.4. DOA Algorithms Using Uniform Circular Array
17.4.1. System Model and 2-d Music Algorithm
17.4.2. The Proposed Algorithm
17.4.3. 2D- Matrix Pencil
17.5. Results and Discussion
17.6. Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 18. UAV Control Based on Optimized Neural Network
18.1. Introduction
18.2. UAV
18.2.1. Classification
18.2.2. Control Surfaces
18.3. Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network
18.4. Optimization System Descript
18.5. Simulation
18.6. Results
18.7. Conclusion
References

Chapter 19. Electrical Power and Energy Measurement Under Non-sinusoidal Condition
19.1. Introduction
19.2. Need of Power and Energy Measurement
19.2.1. Importance of Power Quantities Measurements
19.2.1.1. Power System Operation, Control and the Design of Mitigation Equipment
19.2.1.2. Tariff Assessment
19.2.1.3. Evaluation of Electric Energy Quality
19.3. Classical Methods of Power and Energy Measurement
19.3.1. Active Power Measuring Instruments
19.3.2. Active Energy Measuring Instruments
19.3.3. Reactive Power Measuring Instruments
19.3.4. Power Factor Measuring Instruments
19.4. Problems Associated with Classical Methods
19.5. Measurement at Non-Sinusoidal Condition
19.5.1. International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) 61000 4-7
19.5.2. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1459-2010
19.5.2.1. RMS Calculations
19.5.2.2. Active Power
19.5.2.3. Reactive Power
19.5.2.4. Apparent Power
19.5.2.5. Nonactive Power
19.5.2.6. Power Factor
19.6. Modern Technologies for Power and Energy Measurement
at Non-Sinusoidal Condition
19.6.1. Power Components Measurement
19.6.1.1. Fourier Transform based Assessment
19.6.1.2. Wavelet Transform based Assessment
19.6.1.3. Adaptive Linear Neuron (ADALINE) based Assessment
19.6.1.4. Newton Type Algorithm
19.6.1.5. Time Domain Technique
19.6.1.6. DAQ-based Sampling Wattmeter
19.7. Conclusions
References

Chapter 20. Fine Curvature Measurements through Curvature Energy and their Gauging and Sensoring in the Space
20.1. Introduction
20.2. Cycles of Space Curvature and Co-cycles of Curvature Energy
20.3. Transitory Analysis of Response and Bordering Conditions to Curvature Energy
20.4. Dimensional Analysis and Metrology
20.5. Instrumentation and Laboratory Measurements
20.6. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 21. Artificial Intelligence Based Medical Computer Vision Image Registration System and Algorithm
21.1. Introduction
21.2. Image Overlay Method and System Design
21.2.1. Image Overlay Method
21.2.2. Image Overlay System
21.2.3. Preoperative Image Acquisition
21.2.4. Intraoperative Image Acquisition
21.2.5. Non-rigid Registration
21.2.6. Registration Validation Metrics
21.3. Result
21.3.1. Image Registration Experiments
21.3.2. Deformation Experiments
21.3.3. Organ Visibility Experiments
21.4. Discussion
21.4.1. Non-rigid Image Registration
21.4.2. Registration Accuracy Metric
21.5. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 22. SmartLab Magnetic: A Modern Student Laboratory on Magnetic Materials and Circuits
22.1. Introduction
22.2. Introduction to Transformer-Core Type Magnetic Circuits
22.3. Test Equipment
22.3.1. Magnetic Circuit Configurations
22.3.2. SLM Enhanced Instrumentation
22.4. SLM App User Interface Design
22.5. SLM Tests Guide and Main Results
22.6. Evaluation
22.7. Conclusions
References

Chapter 23. Recent Advances in Characterization of Sol-gel Based Materials for Sensor Applications
23.1. Introduction
23.2. Structural Analyses
23.2.1. UV-vis Spectroscopy
23.2.2. Fourier-Transform Infrared and Raman Vibrational Spectroscopies
23.2.3. Electrochemical Techniques
23.3. Textural Analyses
23.4. Morphological Analysis
23.5. Final Remarks
References


Chapter 24. Induction Electrostatic Sprays in Agriculture Industry
24.1. Introduction
24.2. Background
24.3. Classification of the Literature Review into Three-time Periods
24.3.1. Literature Between 1978 and 1988
24.3.2. Conclusion to the First Period
24.3.3. Papers Published in the Period between 1989 and 2000
24.3.4. Conclusion of the Second Period
24.3.5. Papers Published in the Period between 2001 and 2013
24.3.6. Conclusion to the Third Period between 2001 and 2015
24.4. Factors those Have an Effect on Electrostatic Spraying Efficiency
24.5. Factors Affecting Atomization Properties
24.5.1. Charge to Mass Ratio (CMR)
24.5.2. Droplet Size and Distribution
24.5.3. Back Ionisation
24.5.4. The Drift
24.6. Existing Challenges
24.7. Conclusion and Contributions
References

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