bullet  Advances in Microelectronics: Reviews, Vol. 2.

    (Open Access Book)

        

  Title: Advances in Microelectronics: Reviews, Vol. 2

  Editor: Sergey Y. Yurish

  Publisher: International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing, S. L.

  Formats: paperback (print book) and printable pdf Acrobat (e-book), 514 pages

  Price: 115.00 EUR for print book in hardcover

  Delivery time for print book: 7-17 days. Please contact us for priority (5-9 days), ground (3-8 days) and express (2-3 days) delivery options by e-mail

  Pubdate: 25 January 2019

  ISBN: 978-84-09-08160-8

  e-ISBN: 978-84-09-07322-1

 

  Creative Commons License

 

 

 

Open Access book in pdf format

(free download, 22.2 MB):

 

 

 'Advances in Microelectronics: Reviews' book's cover 

 


 

Buy print book:

 

 Book Description

 

The second volume of 'Advances in Microelectronics: Reviews' Book Series is written by 57 contributors from academy and industry from 11 countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Iran, Japan, Malaysia, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic, Spain, Ukraine and USA). The book contains 13 chapters from different areas of microelectronics: MEMS, materials characterization, and various microelectronic devices.

 

With unique combination of information in each volume, the 'Advances in Microelectronics: Reviews' Book Series will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities. In order to offer a fast and easy reading of the state of the art of each topic, every chapter in this book is independent and self-contained. All chapters have the same structure: first an introduction to specific topic under study; second particular field description including sensing applications. Each of chapter is ending by well selected list of references with books, journals, conference proceedings and web sites.

 

This book ensures that readers will stay at the cutting edge of the field and get the right and effective start point and road map for the further researches and developments.

 

 

Contents:

Content


Preface


Contributors



1. Design of Au-based Micro-components with High Structure Stability
for Applications in MEMS Inertial Sensors


1.1. Introduction
1.2. Micro-mechanical Properties of Ti/Au Multi-layered Pillar
1.3. Structure Stability of Ti/Au Single Layered Cantilever
1.4. Effect of the Constrained Fixed End on the Structure Stability of Ti/Au Single Layered Cantilever
1.5. Temperature Dependency of Structure Stability of Ti/Au Multi-layered Micro-cantilever
1.6. Conclusions


Acknowledgements
References
 


2. MEMS Microhotplate Constraints


2.1. State of the Art
2.1.1. Micro-heaters and Their Applications
2.1.2. Essential Requirements
2.1.3. Mechanical Design and Structural Materials
2.2. Structure and Reliability
2.2.1. Effect of Temperature Gradients
2.2.2. Microhotplate Designs Investigated
2.3. Reliability Issues
2.3.1. Importance of Capping Layer
2.3.2. Lifetime and Activation Energies
2.3.3. Temperature Distribution and Failures on the Improved Pt Filament
2.3.4. Summary of Lifetime Measurements
2.3.5. Reliability of AAO Thin Film Catalyst
2.4. Summary and Conclusions


Acknowledgements
References
 


3. Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy in Electronic and Semiconducting Materials


3.1. Introduction
3.2. Dielectric Materials for Semiconductors
3.2.1. Examples of Dielectric Measurements on Film Samples
3.3. Doped Materials for Semiconductors
3.3.1. Modeling of sMIM Response to Non-linear Materials
3.3.2. sMIM Measurement of a Doping Calibration Sample
3.3.3. Using C-V Curves for Calibration
3.3.4. Quantitative Analysis of a Semiconductor Device
3.4. Additional Examples
3.5. Conclusion


References
 

 


4. Sodium-doped Germanium Crystals as a Material for Infrared Optics and Detector Technique


4.1. Introduction
4.2. Creation and Properties of Na-doped Germanium Crystals
4.2.1. Background
4.2.2. Growth of Ge:Na Crystals Intended for Optical Applications
4.2.3. Optical Properties of Ge:Na Crystals
4.2.4. Identification of the Predominant Donor Impurity
4.2.5. Structural Properties and Degree of Uniformity of Electrical Characteristics
4.2.6. “Self-controlled” Doping of Germanium with Sodium During Crystals Growth
4.2.7. Stability of Performance of Ge:Na Crystals
4.3. Growth and Application of Large Coarse-grain Ge:Na Plates  with Improved Optical Characteristics
4.3.1. Relevance of the Problem
4.3.2. Growth of Polycryctalline Ge:Na Ingots and Plates
4.3.3. Optical Transmission of Polycrystalline Ge:Na Plates and Benefits of Their Practical Application
4.4. Hydrogen in Polycrystalline Ge:Na Plates and Plate Strengthening  by Ultrasonic Processing
4.4.1. Background
4.4.2. Related Works and Considerations
4.4.3. Ultrasonic Processing of Source Material and Optical Germanium Plates
4.4.4. Determination of Hydrogen Presence in As-grown and Ultrasonically Treated Ge:Na Plates
4.4.4.1. Measurement of Hydrogen Content by the Method of High-temperature Extraction
4.4.4.2. Detection of Hydrogen by the Raman Spectroscopy Method
4.4.5. Effect of Ultrasonic Processing on Mechanical and Structural Properties  of Ge:Na Plates
4.4.5.1. Changes in the Vickers Microhardness
4.4.5.2. Changes in the Density, Porosity and Etch Pits Density
4.4.5.3. Changes in the Plate Structure Revealed from Raman Spectroscopy  and X-ray Diffractometry Data
4.4.6. Fracture Toughness and Possible Causes for Increasing the Plates Strength  at Ultrasonic Processing
4.5. Diffusion Parameters, Solubility, and Electrical Activity of Na in Bulk Ge Crystals
4.5.1. Background
4.5.2. Experimental Results
4.5.2.1. Solubility and Distribution Coefficient of Na in Ge
4.5.2.2. Na Diffusion in Ge Crystals
4.5.3. Discussion of Results
4.6. Conclusions


Acknowledgements
References
 


5. Characteristics of Metals Thin Film Deposition on III-V Semiconductor Compounds


5.1. Introduction
5.2. Some Data Regarding Surface Wafer Preparation
5.3. Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films and Characterization Techniques
5.3.1. Vacuum Deposition
5.3.2. Few Dedicated Characterization Techniques
5.4. Ohmic Contacts Thin Films Deposited on III-V Semiconductor Compounds
5.4.1. AuGeNi Deposited on n-GaAs(110) and on n-GaSb(100)
5.4.2. PdGeAu Deposited on n-GaSb(100)
5.4.3. Ag Deposited on p-GaSb(100)
5.4.4. Pd Chemically Deposited on n-GaAs(100) and p-GaAs(100)
5.4.5. InGeNi Deposited on GaAs(SI)(110) and n-GaSb(100)
5.4.6. Au-Cr Deposited on n-GaAs(100)
5.5. Schottky Contacts Thin Films Deposited on III-V Semiconductor Compounds
5.5.1. Au-Ti /GaAs(SI)(100)
5.5.2. Ni Deposited on n-GaSb(100), Au Deposited on n-GaSb(100), Ag Deposited on n-GaSb(110)
5.6. Conclusions


References
 


6. Approaches in Characterization  of Li1-xHxNbO3 Optical Waveguide Layers


6.1. Introduction
6.2. Obtaining of PELN Layers
6.3. Mode (m-line) Spectroscopy
6.3.1. Z-cut Waveguides
6.3.2. X-cut Waveguides
6.3.3. Y-cut Waveguides
6.3.4. Optical Losses
6.3.5. Technology Remarks
6.4. Vibration Spectroscopy
6.4.1. IR Absorption for Phase Composition Analysis
6.4.2. Surface Phase Detection
6.4.3. Phase Composition Analysis by Raman Spectroscopy
6.5. Stress and Phase Composition
6.6. XPS of PELN Layers
6.7. Conclusions


References
 


7. Metal Oxide Nanomaterials Obtained  by Sol-gel and Microwave Assisted Sol-gel Methods


7.1. Introduction
7.2. General Consideration on the Sol-gel Chemistry
7.3. Microwaves and Their Influence on the Chemical Reactions
7.4. Oxide Systems Obtained by Microwave Assisted Sol-gel Method
7.4.1. Nanostructured Oxide Powders Preparation
7.4.2. Nanostructured Oxide Films Preparation
7.4.3. Case Study: TiO2 Based Nanomaterials (Films and Powders)
7.4.3.1. TiO2 and V-doped TiO2 Films
7.4.3.2. TiO2 and V-doped TiO2 Nanopowders
7.5. Conclusions


Acknowledgements
References
 


8. New Heterostructures for Higher Power Microwave DA-pHEMTs


8.1. Introduction
8.2. Enhancement of Hot Electron Confinement in a Channel Layer  by Donor-acceptor Doping
8.3. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of DA-pHEMT Heterostructures
8.4. 2DEG Transport in DA-pHEMT Heterostructures
8.4.1. Model for Scattering Mechanisms in DA-pHEMT Heterostructures
8.4.2. Simulation Results and Discussion
8.4.3. Comparison with Experimental Data
8.4.4. 2DEG Transport in High Electric Fields
8.5. Parameters of the Microwave DA-pHEMTs
8.6. Conclusions


Acknowledgements
References
 


9. Electrothermal Simulation of Power Multifinger HEMT


9.1. Introduction
9.2. HEMT Device Structure
9.3. Numerical Models and Electrothermal Simulation Methodologies
9.3.1. 2/3-D FEM Simulation
9.3.2. 2-D Electrothermal plus 3-D Thermal Mixed-mode Simulation
9.3.3. Electrical Circuit plus 3-D Thermal plus 3-D Metallization Mixed-mode Simulation
9.3.4. 3-D LEM Electrothermal Simulation
9.4. Simulation Results and Validation
9.5. Electrothermal Analysis of Multifinger HEMTs
9.6. Conclusions


Acknowledgements
References
 


10. Hardware Level Security Techniques Against Reading of Cache Memory Sensitive Data List of Abbreviations


10.1. Introduction
10.2. Attacks and Countermeasures on Data Memory Remanence
10.2.1. Cold-boot Attack
10.2.2. Existing Countermeasures
10.2.2.1. Trusted Boundary
10.2.2.2. Trusted and Semi-trusted Boundaries
10.3. Scrambling Technique, Advantages and Limitations
10.3.1. Scrambling Technique
10.3.2. Power or Electromagnetic Analysis Attacks
10.3.2.1. Attack Model
10.3.2.2. Simple SPA Attack
10.3.2.3. Differential DPA Attack
10.3.3. Cold-boot and SPA or DPA Combined Attack
10.4. Countermeasures for Cache Memories
10.4.1. Interleaved Scrambling Technique
10.4.1.1. Scrambler Table
10.4.1.2. ST Resource Requirements
10.4.1.3. Reading and Writing Cycles
10.4.1.4. Evaluation of the Refreshing Rates
10.4.1.5. Evaluation of Area, Power and Time Overheads
10.4.2. Enhanced IST to Defeat SPA Attacks
10.4.2.1. Error Detection and Correction Codes
10.4.2.2. Integrating eDLC with the Scrambling Technique
10.4.2.3. Evaluating the ISTe Effectiveness
10.4.3. Random Masking IST to Defeat DPA Attacks
10.4.3.1. Reading and Writing Cycles
10.4.3.2. Evaluating the ISTm Effectiveness
10.5. Conclusions


References
 


11. A Cost and Power Efficient DDR4 Transmitter with 3-tap Equalizer


11.1. Introduction
11.1.1. Transmitter Structure
11.1.2. Operating Conditions
11.2. Driver Structure for High Transmit Rate in DDR4 Standard
11.2.1. Driver Architecture
11.2.2. Equalizer Architecture
11.2.3. Driver Slice
11.3. Arithmetic Logic Unit for 3-tap Equalizer
11.3.1. Configurable Equalizer Setting
11.3.2. Decoder for Equalizer Code (EDEC)
11.3.3. Decoder for Driver Code (DDEC)
11.4. Pre-driver Structure in DDR4 Standard
11.4.1. Pre-driver Cell
11.4.2. Path-matching Delay Cell
11.5. Power and Cost-effective Performance of DDR4 Transmitter Using  3-tap Equalizer
11.5.1. Simulation Conditions
11.5.2. Duty Cycle Distortion (DCD)
11.5.2.1. Standard PVT Corners
11.5.2.2. Local Variation
11.5.3. Output Slew Rate
11.5.4. Power and Area
11.5.4.1. Power
11.5.4.2. Area
11.6. Conclusions


Acknowledgements
References
 


12. Challenges and Opportunities for SiC MOSFETs Processing


12.1. Introduction
12.2. SiC MOSFETs Challenges
12.3. MOS Interface Properties in View of the Different SiC Polytypes
12.3.1. 3C-SiC
12.3.2. 6H-SiC
12.3.3. 15R-SiC
12.3.4. 4H-SiC
12.4. Channel Mobility Optimization on 4H-SiC MOSFETs
12.4.1. Standard Nitrided Gate Oxidation
12.4.2. Doped Gate Oxides
12.5. Impact of Crystal Orientation
12.5.1. Crystal Orientation
12.5.2. C-face
12.5.3. Off-axis Cut Wafers
12.6. Oxidation Temperature
12.6.1. High Temperature Oxidation
12.6.2. Low Temperature Oxidation
12.7. Threshold Voltage Instability in MOSFETs
12.7.1. Vth Instability Mechanism
12.7.2. Vth Drift in Different Oxides
12.7.3. Novel Vth Measurement Procedures
12.8. Summary


Acknowledgments
References
 


13. Fabrication and Characterization  of Silica/Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanostructures to Improve Gas Sensing Performance


13.1. Introduction
13.1.1. Introduction to Chemical Gas Sensors
13.1.2. Semiconductors
13.1.2.1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors
13.1.2.2. Metal Oxide Semiconductors
13.1.3. The Mechanism of Operation of Metal Oxide Gas Sensors
13.2. Influential Parameters Affecting the Performance of an MOS  Gas Sensor
13.2.1. Electronic Properties of the Material
13.2.1.1. Material Conductivity
13.2.1.2. Concentration of the Charge Carriers
13.2.1.3. The Mobility of Charge Carriers within Semiconductor Structures
13.2.2. Environmental Parameters
13.2.2.1. Humidity
13.2.2.2. Temperature
13.2.3. The Physiochemical Properties of the Synthesized Sensor
13.2.3.1. The Effect of Catalytic Activity on Sensitivity
13.2.3.2. The Effect of Grain Size on the Sensor Response
13.2.3.3. Acidity or Basicity of the Sensor Surface
13.2.3.4. The Effect of Additives as a Dopant or Through Making Composite
13.2.3.5. Microstructure
13.2.3.6. Chemical Composition
13.3. Improvement in the Performance of MOS Gas Sensors by Introduction of a Secondary Material
13.3.1. Approaches to the Metal Oxide-metal Oxide Composite Preparation
13.3.1.1. Mixed Composite Structures
13.3.1.2. Bi-layer and Multi-layer Films
13.3.1.3. Structures Decorated with Second-phase Particles
13.3.1.4. Core-shell Structures
13.3.2. Mechanisms Responsible for Enhanced Sensing Performance  in Heterostructures
13.3.2.1. Role of the Interface (Effects of p-n Nanojunctions in Gas Sensing)
13.3.2.2. Synergistic and Complimentary Catalytic Behavior (Spill-over Effect)
13.3.2.3. Manipulation of Structure (Microstructure Enhancements) (MWCNTs)
13.4. Improvement in the Performance of MOS Gas Sensors by Introduction of Silica
13.4.1. Silica as a Mesoporous Template
13.4.2. Surface/Grain Modification of Semiconductor Metal Oxides Using Silica
13.4.3. Metal Oxide-Coated Silica Nanostructures
13.5. Effect of Silica Addition on Pt/SnO2 Based CO Gas Sensor Performance
13.5.1. Experimental
13.5.2. Results
13.5.2.1. Structural Stability
13.5.2.2. Response and Stability of Gas Sensors
13.5.2.3. The Role of Dopants in the Stability of Gas Sensors
13.6. Effect of Silica in the SnO2 Decorated Silica Sensors on EtOH  and Acetone Sensing Performance
13.6.1. Experimental
13.6.1.1. Synthesis of Sensing Materials and Preparation of Gas Sensors
13.6.1.2. Characterization
13.6.1.3. Gas Sensing Measurements
13.6.2. Results and Discussion
13.6.2.1. Characterization Results
13.6.2.2. Gas Sensing Properties
13.6.3. Conclusions
13.7. Effect of Silica in the Silica/ZnO Core/Shell Nanostructures on the Gas Sensing Performance
13.7.1. Synthesis and Characterization Methods
13.7.2. Gas Sensing Measurements and Long-term Stability
13.7.3. Results and Discussions
13.7.3.1. Characterization
13.7.3.2. Gas Sensing Performanc


References

Sensors Web Portal's logo

 

 

 

 

We accept also a bank account money transfers and checks. Please contact by
e-mail for details.

 

Buy this print book:

 

 

See other books published by IFSA Publishing

 

 

 

 

   


1999 - 2019 Copyright ©, International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing, S. L. All Rights Reserved.


 

Home - Bookstore - Sensors & Transducers journal - IFSA Privacy Policy