bullet  Advances in Microelectronics: Reviews, Vol. 2.

    (Open Access Book)


  Title: Advances in Microelectronics: Reviews, Vol. 2

  Editor: Sergey Y. Yurish

  Publisher: International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing, S. L.

  Formats: paperback (print book) and printable pdf Acrobat (e-book), 514 pages

  Price: 115.00 EUR for print book in hardcover

  Delivery time for print book: 7-17 days. Please contact us for priority (5-9 days), ground (3-8 days) and express (2-3 days) delivery options by e-mail

  Pubdate: 25 January 2019

  ISBN: 978-84-09-08160-8

  e-ISBN: 978-84-09-07322-1


  Creative Commons License




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 Book Description


The second volume of 'Advances in Microelectronics: Reviews' Book Series is written by 57 contributors from academy and industry from 11 countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Iran, Japan, Malaysia, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic, Spain, Ukraine and USA). The book contains 13 chapters from different areas of microelectronics: MEMS, materials characterization, and various microelectronic devices.


With unique combination of information in each volume, the 'Advances in Microelectronics: Reviews' Book Series will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities. In order to offer a fast and easy reading of the state of the art of each topic, every chapter in this book is independent and self-contained. All chapters have the same structure: first an introduction to specific topic under study; second particular field description including sensing applications. Each of chapter is ending by well selected list of references with books, journals, conference proceedings and web sites.


This book ensures that readers will stay at the cutting edge of the field and get the right and effective start point and road map for the further researches and developments.







1. Design of Au-based Micro-components with High Structure Stability
for Applications in MEMS Inertial Sensors

1.1. Introduction
1.2. Micro-mechanical Properties of Ti/Au Multi-layered Pillar
1.3. Structure Stability of Ti/Au Single Layered Cantilever
1.4. Effect of the Constrained Fixed End on the Structure Stability of Ti/Au Single Layered Cantilever
1.5. Temperature Dependency of Structure Stability of Ti/Au Multi-layered Micro-cantilever
1.6. Conclusions


2. MEMS Microhotplate Constraints

2.1. State of the Art
2.1.1. Micro-heaters and Their Applications
2.1.2. Essential Requirements
2.1.3. Mechanical Design and Structural Materials
2.2. Structure and Reliability
2.2.1. Effect of Temperature Gradients
2.2.2. Microhotplate Designs Investigated
2.3. Reliability Issues
2.3.1. Importance of Capping Layer
2.3.2. Lifetime and Activation Energies
2.3.3. Temperature Distribution and Failures on the Improved Pt Filament
2.3.4. Summary of Lifetime Measurements
2.3.5. Reliability of AAO Thin Film Catalyst
2.4. Summary and Conclusions


3. Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy in Electronic and Semiconducting Materials

3.1. Introduction
3.2. Dielectric Materials for Semiconductors
3.2.1. Examples of Dielectric Measurements on Film Samples
3.3. Doped Materials for Semiconductors
3.3.1. Modeling of sMIM Response to Non-linear Materials
3.3.2. sMIM Measurement of a Doping Calibration Sample
3.3.3. Using C-V Curves for Calibration
3.3.4. Quantitative Analysis of a Semiconductor Device
3.4. Additional Examples
3.5. Conclusion



4. Sodium-doped Germanium Crystals as a Material for Infrared Optics and Detector Technique

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Creation and Properties of Na-doped Germanium Crystals
4.2.1. Background
4.2.2. Growth of Ge:Na Crystals Intended for Optical Applications
4.2.3. Optical Properties of Ge:Na Crystals
4.2.4. Identification of the Predominant Donor Impurity
4.2.5. Structural Properties and Degree of Uniformity of Electrical Characteristics
4.2.6. “Self-controlled” Doping of Germanium with Sodium During Crystals Growth
4.2.7. Stability of Performance of Ge:Na Crystals
4.3. Growth and Application of Large Coarse-grain Ge:Na Plates  with Improved Optical Characteristics
4.3.1. Relevance of the Problem
4.3.2. Growth of Polycryctalline Ge:Na Ingots and Plates
4.3.3. Optical Transmission of Polycrystalline Ge:Na Plates and Benefits of Their Practical Application
4.4. Hydrogen in Polycrystalline Ge:Na Plates and Plate Strengthening  by Ultrasonic Processing
4.4.1. Background
4.4.2. Related Works and Considerations
4.4.3. Ultrasonic Processing of Source Material and Optical Germanium Plates
4.4.4. Determination of Hydrogen Presence in As-grown and Ultrasonically Treated Ge:Na Plates Measurement of Hydrogen Content by the Method of High-temperature Extraction Detection of Hydrogen by the Raman Spectroscopy Method
4.4.5. Effect of Ultrasonic Processing on Mechanical and Structural Properties  of Ge:Na Plates Changes in the Vickers Microhardness Changes in the Density, Porosity and Etch Pits Density Changes in the Plate Structure Revealed from Raman Spectroscopy  and X-ray Diffractometry Data
4.4.6. Fracture Toughness and Possible Causes for Increasing the Plates Strength  at Ultrasonic Processing
4.5. Diffusion Parameters, Solubility, and Electrical Activity of Na in Bulk Ge Crystals
4.5.1. Background
4.5.2. Experimental Results Solubility and Distribution Coefficient of Na in Ge Na Diffusion in Ge Crystals
4.5.3. Discussion of Results
4.6. Conclusions


5. Characteristics of Metals Thin Film Deposition on III-V Semiconductor Compounds

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Some Data Regarding Surface Wafer Preparation
5.3. Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films and Characterization Techniques
5.3.1. Vacuum Deposition
5.3.2. Few Dedicated Characterization Techniques
5.4. Ohmic Contacts Thin Films Deposited on III-V Semiconductor Compounds
5.4.1. AuGeNi Deposited on n-GaAs(110) and on n-GaSb(100)
5.4.2. PdGeAu Deposited on n-GaSb(100)
5.4.3. Ag Deposited on p-GaSb(100)
5.4.4. Pd Chemically Deposited on n-GaAs(100) and p-GaAs(100)
5.4.5. InGeNi Deposited on GaAs(SI)(110) and n-GaSb(100)
5.4.6. Au-Cr Deposited on n-GaAs(100)
5.5. Schottky Contacts Thin Films Deposited on III-V Semiconductor Compounds
5.5.1. Au-Ti /GaAs(SI)(100)
5.5.2. Ni Deposited on n-GaSb(100), Au Deposited on n-GaSb(100), Ag Deposited on n-GaSb(110)
5.6. Conclusions


6. Approaches in Characterization  of Li1-xHxNbO3 Optical Waveguide Layers

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Obtaining of PELN Layers
6.3. Mode (m-line) Spectroscopy
6.3.1. Z-cut Waveguides
6.3.2. X-cut Waveguides
6.3.3. Y-cut Waveguides
6.3.4. Optical Losses
6.3.5. Technology Remarks
6.4. Vibration Spectroscopy
6.4.1. IR Absorption for Phase Composition Analysis
6.4.2. Surface Phase Detection
6.4.3. Phase Composition Analysis by Raman Spectroscopy
6.5. Stress and Phase Composition
6.6. XPS of PELN Layers
6.7. Conclusions


7. Metal Oxide Nanomaterials Obtained  by Sol-gel and Microwave Assisted Sol-gel Methods

7.1. Introduction
7.2. General Consideration on the Sol-gel Chemistry
7.3. Microwaves and Their Influence on the Chemical Reactions
7.4. Oxide Systems Obtained by Microwave Assisted Sol-gel Method
7.4.1. Nanostructured Oxide Powders Preparation
7.4.2. Nanostructured Oxide Films Preparation
7.4.3. Case Study: TiO2 Based Nanomaterials (Films and Powders) TiO2 and V-doped TiO2 Films TiO2 and V-doped TiO2 Nanopowders
7.5. Conclusions


8. New Heterostructures for Higher Power Microwave DA-pHEMTs

8.1. Introduction
8.2. Enhancement of Hot Electron Confinement in a Channel Layer  by Donor-acceptor Doping
8.3. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of DA-pHEMT Heterostructures
8.4. 2DEG Transport in DA-pHEMT Heterostructures
8.4.1. Model for Scattering Mechanisms in DA-pHEMT Heterostructures
8.4.2. Simulation Results and Discussion
8.4.3. Comparison with Experimental Data
8.4.4. 2DEG Transport in High Electric Fields
8.5. Parameters of the Microwave DA-pHEMTs
8.6. Conclusions


9. Electrothermal Simulation of Power Multifinger HEMT

9.1. Introduction
9.2. HEMT Device Structure
9.3. Numerical Models and Electrothermal Simulation Methodologies
9.3.1. 2/3-D FEM Simulation
9.3.2. 2-D Electrothermal plus 3-D Thermal Mixed-mode Simulation
9.3.3. Electrical Circuit plus 3-D Thermal plus 3-D Metallization Mixed-mode Simulation
9.3.4. 3-D LEM Electrothermal Simulation
9.4. Simulation Results and Validation
9.5. Electrothermal Analysis of Multifinger HEMTs
9.6. Conclusions


10. Hardware Level Security Techniques Against Reading of Cache Memory Sensitive Data List of Abbreviations

10.1. Introduction
10.2. Attacks and Countermeasures on Data Memory Remanence
10.2.1. Cold-boot Attack
10.2.2. Existing Countermeasures Trusted Boundary Trusted and Semi-trusted Boundaries
10.3. Scrambling Technique, Advantages and Limitations
10.3.1. Scrambling Technique
10.3.2. Power or Electromagnetic Analysis Attacks Attack Model Simple SPA Attack Differential DPA Attack
10.3.3. Cold-boot and SPA or DPA Combined Attack
10.4. Countermeasures for Cache Memories
10.4.1. Interleaved Scrambling Technique Scrambler Table ST Resource Requirements Reading and Writing Cycles Evaluation of the Refreshing Rates Evaluation of Area, Power and Time Overheads
10.4.2. Enhanced IST to Defeat SPA Attacks Error Detection and Correction Codes Integrating eDLC with the Scrambling Technique Evaluating the ISTe Effectiveness
10.4.3. Random Masking IST to Defeat DPA Attacks Reading and Writing Cycles Evaluating the ISTm Effectiveness
10.5. Conclusions


11. A Cost and Power Efficient DDR4 Transmitter with 3-tap Equalizer

11.1. Introduction
11.1.1. Transmitter Structure
11.1.2. Operating Conditions
11.2. Driver Structure for High Transmit Rate in DDR4 Standard
11.2.1. Driver Architecture
11.2.2. Equalizer Architecture
11.2.3. Driver Slice
11.3. Arithmetic Logic Unit for 3-tap Equalizer
11.3.1. Configurable Equalizer Setting
11.3.2. Decoder for Equalizer Code (EDEC)
11.3.3. Decoder for Driver Code (DDEC)
11.4. Pre-driver Structure in DDR4 Standard
11.4.1. Pre-driver Cell
11.4.2. Path-matching Delay Cell
11.5. Power and Cost-effective Performance of DDR4 Transmitter Using  3-tap Equalizer
11.5.1. Simulation Conditions
11.5.2. Duty Cycle Distortion (DCD) Standard PVT Corners Local Variation
11.5.3. Output Slew Rate
11.5.4. Power and Area Power Area
11.6. Conclusions


12. Challenges and Opportunities for SiC MOSFETs Processing

12.1. Introduction
12.2. SiC MOSFETs Challenges
12.3. MOS Interface Properties in View of the Different SiC Polytypes
12.3.1. 3C-SiC
12.3.2. 6H-SiC
12.3.3. 15R-SiC
12.3.4. 4H-SiC
12.4. Channel Mobility Optimization on 4H-SiC MOSFETs
12.4.1. Standard Nitrided Gate Oxidation
12.4.2. Doped Gate Oxides
12.5. Impact of Crystal Orientation
12.5.1. Crystal Orientation
12.5.2. C-face
12.5.3. Off-axis Cut Wafers
12.6. Oxidation Temperature
12.6.1. High Temperature Oxidation
12.6.2. Low Temperature Oxidation
12.7. Threshold Voltage Instability in MOSFETs
12.7.1. Vth Instability Mechanism
12.7.2. Vth Drift in Different Oxides
12.7.3. Novel Vth Measurement Procedures
12.8. Summary


13. Fabrication and Characterization  of Silica/Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanostructures to Improve Gas Sensing Performance

13.1. Introduction
13.1.1. Introduction to Chemical Gas Sensors
13.1.2. Semiconductors Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors Metal Oxide Semiconductors
13.1.3. The Mechanism of Operation of Metal Oxide Gas Sensors
13.2. Influential Parameters Affecting the Performance of an MOS  Gas Sensor
13.2.1. Electronic Properties of the Material Material Conductivity Concentration of the Charge Carriers The Mobility of Charge Carriers within Semiconductor Structures
13.2.2. Environmental Parameters Humidity Temperature
13.2.3. The Physiochemical Properties of the Synthesized Sensor The Effect of Catalytic Activity on Sensitivity The Effect of Grain Size on the Sensor Response Acidity or Basicity of the Sensor Surface The Effect of Additives as a Dopant or Through Making Composite Microstructure Chemical Composition
13.3. Improvement in the Performance of MOS Gas Sensors by Introduction of a Secondary Material
13.3.1. Approaches to the Metal Oxide-metal Oxide Composite Preparation Mixed Composite Structures Bi-layer and Multi-layer Films Structures Decorated with Second-phase Particles Core-shell Structures
13.3.2. Mechanisms Responsible for Enhanced Sensing Performance  in Heterostructures Role of the Interface (Effects of p-n Nanojunctions in Gas Sensing) Synergistic and Complimentary Catalytic Behavior (Spill-over Effect) Manipulation of Structure (Microstructure Enhancements) (MWCNTs)
13.4. Improvement in the Performance of MOS Gas Sensors by Introduction of Silica
13.4.1. Silica as a Mesoporous Template
13.4.2. Surface/Grain Modification of Semiconductor Metal Oxides Using Silica
13.4.3. Metal Oxide-Coated Silica Nanostructures
13.5. Effect of Silica Addition on Pt/SnO2 Based CO Gas Sensor Performance
13.5.1. Experimental
13.5.2. Results Structural Stability Response and Stability of Gas Sensors The Role of Dopants in the Stability of Gas Sensors
13.6. Effect of Silica in the SnO2 Decorated Silica Sensors on EtOH  and Acetone Sensing Performance
13.6.1. Experimental Synthesis of Sensing Materials and Preparation of Gas Sensors Characterization Gas Sensing Measurements
13.6.2. Results and Discussion Characterization Results Gas Sensing Properties
13.6.3. Conclusions
13.7. Effect of Silica in the Silica/ZnO Core/Shell Nanostructures on the Gas Sensing Performance
13.7.1. Synthesis and Characterization Methods
13.7.2. Gas Sensing Measurements and Long-term Stability
13.7.3. Results and Discussions Characterization Gas Sensing Performanc


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