bullet Advances in Optics: Reviews, Vol. 3

   (Open Access Book)

        

  Title: Advances in Optics: Reviews, Vol. 3, Book Series

  Editor: Sergey Y. Yurish

  Publisher: International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing

  Formats: paperback (print book) and printable pdf Acrobat (e-book) 520 pages

  Price: 110.00 EUR (shipping cost by a standard mail without a tracking code is included)

  Delivery time for print book: 7-17 days dependent on country of destination. Please contact us for priority (5-9 days), ground (3-8 days) and express (3-5 days) delivery options by e-mail

  Pubdate: 20 April 2018

  ISBN: 978-84-697-9439-5

  e-ISBN: 978-84-697-9440-1

 

  Creative Commons License

 

 

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 Advances in Optics: Reviews, Vol. 3, Book Series

 


 

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 Book Description

 

 

The Vol.3 is devoted to various topics of applied optics and contains 17 chapters written by 49 experts in the field from 14 countries: Australia, China, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, The Netherlands, Poland, Taiwan, UK, USA and Vietnam.

 

The third of three volumes of this Book Series has organized by topics of high interest. In order to offer a fast and easy reading of each topic, every chapter in this book is independent and self-contained. All chapters have the same structure: first an introduction to specific topic under study; second particular field description including sensing or/and measuring applications. Each of chapter is ending by complete list of carefully selected references with books, journals, conference proceedings and web sites.

 

Advances in Optics: Reviews’ Book Series is a comprehensive study of the field of optics, which provides readers with the most up-to-date coverage of optics, photonics and lasers with a good balance of practical and theoretical aspects. Directed towards both physicists and engineers this Book Series is also suitable for audiences focusing on applications of optics. A clear comprehensive presentation makes these books work well as both a teaching resources and a reference books. The book is intended for researchers and scientists in physics and optics, in academia and industry, as well as postgraduate students.

 

 

Contents:

 

Contents
Contributors
Preface

 

1. Health and Wellness Fiber Optic Sensors in IoT Application


1.1. Introduction
1.2. Internet of Things
1.2.1. Communication Models Used by IoT
1.2.2. Main Existing Applications of IoT
1.2.3. Leading Companies
1.3. Fiber Optic Sensors for Health and Wellness Application
1.3.1. Working Principles and Applications
1.3.1.1. Intensity-Modulated Fiber Optic Sensors
1.3.1.2. Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors
1.3.1.3. Wavelength-Modulated Sensors
1.3.2. Multicore Fiber
1.4. IoT Systems for the Family Based on Fiber Optic Sensor
1.5. Conclusion and Future Prospect
References

 


2. Multi-Point Temperature Sensor Consisting of AWG, SOA, and FBGs in Linear-Cavity Fiber Lasing System


2.1. Introduction
2.2. Linear-Cavity Fiber Sensor Consisting of SOA, AWG, and FBGs
2.3. Analysis of Multi-Channel Lasing
2.3.1. Analysis for SOA Nonlinearity
2.3.2. Analysis of Multi-Wavelength Lasing
2.4. Experimental Results
2.4.1. SOA Nonlinearity
2.4.2. ASE Spectrum and AWG Transmittance
2.4.3. Multi-Wavelength Lasing
2.4.4. Two-Wavelength Lasing with FBGs
2.4.5. Simultaneous Temperature Sensing
2.4.6. Increase of the Temperature Sensing Range
2.5. Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Appendix

 


3. Review of Fabry-Pérot Fiber Sensors


3.1. Introduction
3.2. Basic Theory
3.3. Applications
3.3.1. Strain Sensing
3.3.1.1. Prolate Spheroidal FP Cavity Strain Sensor
3.3.1.2. Spherical FP Cavity Strain Sensor
3.3.1.3. Cylindrical FP Cavity Strain Sensor
3.3.1.4. Analysis of Temperature Sensitivity for the Fiber FP Strain Sensor
3.3.1.5. Summary of this Section
3.3.2. Refractive Index Sensing
3.3.2.1. Method of Measuring Fluid RI in FP Cavity
3.3.2.2. Method of Measuring Fluid RI out of FP Cavity
3.3.2.3. Summary of this Section
3.3.3. Temperature Sensing
3.3.3.1. Theory
3.3.3.2. Applications of Temperature Sensor Based on FPI
3.3.3.3. Summary of this Section
3.4. Concluding Remarks and Perspectives
References

 


4. Multi-Parameter Integrated Optical Sensor Based on Multimode Interference and Microring Resonator Structures


4.1. Introduction
4.2. Multimode Interference Structures
4.3. Microring Resonator
4.4. Two-Parameter Sensor Based on 4×4 MMI and Resonator Structure
4.5. Three-Parameter Sensor Based on 6×6 MMI and Resonator Structure
4.6. Four-Parameter Sensor Based on 8×8 MMI and Resonator Structure
4.7. Conclusions
References

 


5. Coherent Gradient Sensor for Curvature Measurement in Extreme Environments


5.1. Introduction
5.2. The CGS System
5.3. Curvature Measurements in Cryogenic Medium
5.3.1. Governing Equations
5.3.2. Error Analysis
5.3.3. Curvature Measurement in Cryogenic Vacuum Chamber
5.4. Curvature Measurements in Multiple Media
5.4.1. Refraction Analysis
5.4.2. Experiment Verification
5.5. The Multiplication Method for Sparse Interferometric Fringes
Acknowledgements
References

 


6. Photo-Emf Sensors and Talbot Effect: Measurement of Displacement and Vibration


6.1. Introduction
6.2. Non-Steady-State Photo-Electromotive Force Effect
6.3. Applications
6.3.1. Measurements of Displacements
6.3.2. Determination of Low Frequency, Out-of-Plane Vibrations
6.4. Conclusions
References

 


7. Advances in Label-Free Sensing of Bacteria by Light Diffraction Phenomenon


7.1. Introduction
7.2. The Biophysical Model of the Bacterial Colony
7.3. The Optical System for Analysis of Light Diffraction on Bacterial Colonies
7.3.1. The Optical Wave Field Transformation in Proposed Optical System
7.3.2. The Configuration of the Experimental Optical System for Bacteria Identification
7.4. Bacteria Identification Based on Fresnel Diffraction Patterns of Bacterial Colonies
7.4.1. The Bacteria Sample Preparation
7.4.2. The Experimental Fresnel Diffraction Patterns of Bacterial Colonies
7.4.3. The Analysis of the Diffraction Patterns
7.5. The Use of the Fresnel Diffraction Patterns of Bacterial Colonies for Evaluation of the Efficiency of Antibacterial Factors
7.6. The Perspectives for Exploiting of Light Diffraction on Bacterial Colonies Using Digital Holography
7.7. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

 


8. Integrated Terahertz Planar Waveguides for Molecular Sensing


8.1. Introduction
8.2. THz Frequency Sensitive Detection
8.2.1. Waveguide Configuration and Terahertz Spectral Characterization
8.2.2. Integration of a Superstrate and the Sensing Method
8.3. Phase Sensitive Detection
8.3.1. Waveguide Configuration and Terahertz Spectral Characterization
8.3.2. Integration of a Superstrate and the Sensing Method
8.4. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

 


9. Integrated-Optics Solutions for Biomedical Optical Imaging


9.1. Introduction
9.2. Designs at 1300 nm
9.2.1. Material System
9.2.2. Working Principle of the Electro-Optic Switch
9.2.3. Akinetic Beam Scanner Layout and Its Working Principle
9.2.4. Multiple-Reference TD-OCT Layout and Its Working Principle
9.2.5. Design Parameters of the Electro-Optic Switch
9.2.6. Two-Mode Interference Beam Splitter/Combiner Design
9.3. High-Speed Spectrometer Designs
9.3.1. Material System at 800 nm
9.3.2. Electro-Optic Switch Design at 800 nm
9.3.3. Ultrahigh-Resolution Spectrometer Layout and Its Working Principle
9.3.4. Broadband Spectrometer Layout and Its Working Principle
9.4. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

 


10. Video Based Heart Rate Estimation Using Facial Images from Video Sequences


10.1. Introduction
10.2. Introduction to Component Analysis
10.2.1. Independent Component Analysis
10.2.2. Principal Component Analysis
10.3. Dynamic Heart Rate Estimation Using Component Analysis
10.3.1. Experimental Setup
10.3.2. Experimental Results Using ICA Method
10.3.3. Experimental Results Using PCA
10.4. Distance between the Subject and Video Camera
10.4.1. Varying Distance with Fixed Video Duration
10.4.2. Fixed Distance with Varying Video Duration
10.5. Conclusion
References

 


11. Implementing Differential Signalling in Free Space Optical Communication Link


11.1. Introduction to Free Space Optics
11.2. FSO Communications
11.2.1. Background
11.2.2. FSO Structure
11.3. Turbulence
11.4. Channel Model
11.5. Differential Signalling
11.6. Differential Signalling Configuration
11.7. Differential Signalling and Turbulence
11.7.1. Optimal Detection Threshold Level
11.7.2. Correlation between Channels
11.7.3. Channel Modelling
11.7.4. BER Expression
11.7.5. Numerical Analysis
11.7.6. Atmospheric Turbulence Experiment
11.8. Differential Signalling and Pointing Errors
11.8.1. Channel Modelling
11.8.2. Pointing Errors Experiment
11.9. Differential Signalling and Manchester Code
11.9.1. System Configuration
11.9.2. Manchester Code Experiment
11.10. Summary
References

 


12. Fabrications of Holographic Optical Elements in Polycarbonate for Holographic Weapon Sight Application


12.1. Introduction
12.2. Material and Methods
12.3. Experimental Arrangement
12.3.1. Fabrication Details of Reticle HOE in AgH
12.3.2. Direct Fabrication of HOEs in Photoresist
12.3.3. Transfer of HOE into PR and PC
12.4. Result and Discussion
12.5. Conclusion
Acknowledgment
References

 


13. Optical Methods for the Characterization of PV Solar Concentrators


13.1. Introduction
13.2. Theoretical Aspects of SC Irradiation and Definition of New Optical Quantities
13.2.1. Direct Collimated Irradiation
13.2.2. Direct Lambertian Irradiation
13.2.3. Inverse Lambertian Irradiation
13.2.4. Mixed Lambertian Irradiation
13.3. Equivalence between DCM and ILM
13.4. Real Prototypes of Nonimaging Solar Concentrators
13.5. Practical Application of the SC Characterization Methods
13.5.1. Application of the DCM Method
13.5.2. Application of the ILM Method (Parretta-Method)
13.5.3. The Application of DLCM Method
13.5.3.1. Optical Efficiency Measurements
13.5.3.2. Beam Exit Angle Measurements
13.5.4. The Application of the PH-Method (Parretta-Herrero Method)
13.6. Experimental Results
13.6.1 The Truncated and Squared CPC (TS-CPC)
13.6.1.1. Local Optical Efficiency by the Laser Method (DLCM)
13.6.1.2. Beam Exit Angle Measurements
13.6.1.3. Optical Efficiency by DCM and ILM
13.6.1.4. Local Optical Efficiency by ILLM
13.6.2. The (Virtual) Half-Truncated CPC (HT-CPC)
13.6.2.1. Local Optical Efficiency by ILLM
13.6.3. The Truncated CPC (T-CPC)
13.6.3.1. Optical Efficiency by ILM
13.6.4. The Rondine Concentrators
13.6.4.1. Optical Efficiency by DCM and ILM
13.6.4.2. Optical Efficiency by Parretta-Method and Parretta-Herrero Method
13.6.5. The PhoCUS Concentrator
13.6.5.1. Optical Simulations
13.6.5.2. Experimental Measurements
13.7. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Appendix 13.A
Appendix 13.B
Appendix 13.C
Appendix 13.D


 

14. Determination of the Heights of the Smoke-Plume Layering in the Vicinity of Wildfires and Prescribed Burns


14.1. Introduction
14.2. Determination of the Heights of the Smoke-Plume Layering in the Vicinity of Wildfires: Theory and Data Processing Methodology
14.3. Some Results of Lidar Profiling of the Smoke-Polluted Atmosphere in the Vicinity of Spotted Wildfires
14.4. Determination of the Heights of the Smoke-Plume Layering in the Vicinity of Prescribed Burns
14.5. Summary
References

 


15. Precision Glass Molding


15.1. Introduction
15.2. An Introduction to PGM
15.3. Selection of Glass and Preparation of Its Preform
15.4. Precision Mold Fabrication
15.4.1. Mold Materials in PGM
15.4.2. Mold Fabrications
15.4.2.1. Macro Mold Fabrication
15.4.2.2. Micro Mold Fabrication
15.5. PGM Process
15.5.1. Stages in a PGM Process
15.5.2. Finite Element Analysis
15.5.2.1. Constitutive Modeling of Optical Glass
15.5.2.2. Mechanisms of Profile Distortion
15.5.2.3. Residual Stresses
15.6. Quality Inspection Techniques
15.6.1. Surface Characterization
15.6.2. Residual Stress Characterization
15.6.3. Micro-Optics Characterization and Standardization
15.7. Optimization of PGM Process
15.7.1. Optimization Strategy
15.7.2. Mold Shape Optimization
15.7.3. Residual Stress Optimization
15.7.4. Multi-Objective Optimization
15.8. Summary
Acknowledgements
References

 


16. Deterministic Loose Abrasive Wear in Conventional Grinding-Polishing Machines


16.1. Introduction
16.2. Abrasive Wear Theory
16.3. Conventional Grinding-Polishing Machines
16.4. Relative Velocities between an Arbitrary Pair of Points
16.5. Upper Disk Relative Velocity
16.5.1. First Relative Velocity Contribution (V0) Approximate Calculation
16.5.2. Second Relative Velocity Contribution (V1)
16.5.3. Third Relative Velocity Contribution (V2)
16.5.4. Vector Addition of Three Relative Velocity Contributions
16.6. Lower Disk Relative Velocity
16.6.1. Approximate Calculation of the First Relative Velocity Component (V0)
16.6.2. Calculation of the Relative Velocity Second Component (V1)
16.6.3. General Expression for the Third Relative Velocity Component (V2)
16.6.4. Vector Addition of Three Relative Velocity Contributions
16.7. Boundary Conditions in Abrasive Wear Process
16.8. Pressure Distribution within Disks Contact Area
16.9. Arm Stroke Adjustments (Controlling Curvature Radius and Figure)
16.10. Simulation and Real Optical Manufacturing
16.11. Concluding Remarks
Acknowledgment
References

 


17. Quantitative Phase Microscopy and Tomography with Spatially Incoherent Light


17.1. Introduction
17.2. Concepts of Coherence
17.2.1. Temporal Coherence
17.2.2. Spatial Coherence
17.2.2.1. Transverse Spatial Coherence
17.2.2.2. Longitudinal Spatial Coherence
17.3. Synthesis of Low Spatial and High Temporal Coherent light Source
17.3.1. Experimental Details
17.4. Phase Retrieval Algorithm
17.4.1. Five Step Algorithm
17.4.2. Fourier Transform Algorithm
17.5. Characterization of System Parameters
17.5.1. Temporal and Spatial Phase Noise
17.5.2. Transverse Resolution
17.5.3. Axial Resolution
17.6. Spatial Phase Noise Comparison in Case of Direct Laser and Synthesized Light Source
17.6.1. Standard Flat Mirror
17.6.2. Human Red Blood Cells
17.7. Quantitative Phase Imaging of Industrial and Biological Cells Using Pseudo Thermal Light Source
17.7.1. QPI of Standard Waveguide
17.7.2. QPI of Human RBCs
17.7.3. QPI of Onion Cells
17.8. Profilometry and Optical Coherence Tomography
17.8.1. Profilometry of Standard Gauge Block and Indian Five Rupee Coin
17.8.2. OCT of Multilayered Onion Sample
17.9. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References


Index

 

 

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