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  Title: Chemical Sensors and Biosensors (Book Series: Advances in Sensors: Reviews, Vol. 6)

  Editor: Sergey Y. Yurish

  Publisher: International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing

  Formats: paperback (print book) and printable pdf Acrobat (e-book) 582 pages

  Price: 120.00 EUR (shipping cost by a standard mail without a tracking code is included)

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  Pubdate: 11 June 2018

  ISBN: 978-84-09-03030-9

  e-ISBN: 978-84-09-03031-6

 

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 Chemical Sensors and Biosensors (Book Series: Advances in Sensors: Reviews, Vol. 6)

 


 

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 Book Description

 

 

Today our ‘Advances in Sensors: Reviews’ Book Series, published by IFSA Publishing (Barcelona, Spain) has become very popular. The first volume of Book Series was published in 2012, and since 2016 the ‘Advances in Sesnors: Reviews’ (volume 4) is publishing as an open access book.

 

The idea of publication of Book Series 'Advances in Sensors: Reviews', Vol. 5 was accepted by all sensor community with a great enthusiasm. We have got many high quality chapters from different sensor areas, and decided to publish two volumes (5 and 6) of the book in 2018.

 

The Vol. 6 of this Book Series contains 21 chapters written by 94 contributors-experts from universities and research centres, from 21 countries: Argentina, Austria, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Thailand, UK and USA.   This volume is devoted to various chemical sensors (sensors for various gases, nucleic acids, organic compounds, nanosensors, etc.) and biosensors.

 

Similar to the Vol. 4, two new volumes are also published as Open Access Books in order to significantly increase the reach and impact of these volumes, as well as to increase the authors’ citations. The books are available in two formats: electronic (pdf) with full-colour illustrations and print (paperback).

 

Like all volumes from this Book Series, the volume 6 has been also organized by topics of high interest. In order to offer a fast and easy reading of each topic, every chapter in this book is independent and self-contained. All chapters have the same structure: first an introduction to specific topic under study; second particular field description including sensing or/and measuring applications. Each of chapter is ending by well selected list of references with books, journals, conference proceedings and web sites.

 

This book ensures that our readers will stay at the cutting edge of the field and get the right and effective start point and road map for the further researches and developments. By this way, they will be able to save more time for productive research activity and eliminate routine work.

 

With the unique combination of information in this volume, the ‘Advances in Sensors: Reviews’ Book Series will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and end users.

 

 

Contents:

 

Contents
Contributors
Preface

 

Chapter 1. Resistive Thick and Thin Film Gas Sensors Built with Nanomaterials and Related Research


1.1. Introduction
1.2. Factors Affecting the Gas Sensing Process
1.3. Experimental Procedure and Results
1.3.1. Thick Film Resistive Sensors Built with Nanocrystalline Oxide (SnO2)
1.3.1.1. Pure SnO2 Synthesis
1.3.1.2. Doped SnO2 Synthesis
1.3.2. Nanomaterials Characterization
1.3.3. Electronic Control System for Gas Sensors
1.3.4. Resistive Thick Films Gas Sensors Built with Nanomaterials
1.4. Experimental Procedure and Results
1.4.1. Thin Film Resistive Sensors Built with Nanocrystalline Oxide (SnO2)
1.4.1.1. Pure SnO2 Synthesis
1.4.1.2. Doped SnO2 Synthesis
1.4.2. Thin Films Characterisation
1.4.3. Electronic Control System for Thin Film Gas Sensors
1.4.4. Resistive Thin Films Gas Sensors Built with Nanomaterials
1.4.4.1. H2 (g) Resistive Thin Film Gas Sensor
1.4.4.2. H2S (g) Resistive Thin Film Gas Sensor
1.5. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

 


Chapter 2. Gas-Phase Synthesized Nanostructured Oxide-Based Gas Sensors


2.1. Introduction
2.2. Measurement Set-Up, Sensor Array and Preparation of Films for Electrical
and Gas-Sensing Characterisation
2.3. Studies on SnOx Films Made from Size-Selected Nanoparticles
2.4. Studies on ZnO films Made from Poly-Dispersed Nanoparticles
2.5. Conclusion
Acknowledgement
References

 


Chapter 3. Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) Gas Sensors


3.1. Introduction
3.1.1. Theoretical Background
3.1.2. Role of Oxygen Adsorbate
3.2. Physical Parameters of Sensor Element
3.2.1. Doping and Mixing of Metal Oxides
3.2.2. Grain Size
3.2.3. Porosity of MOS Layer
3.2.4. Catalytic Activity
3.3. Gas Sensor Characteristics
3.4. Recent Development of MOS Gas Sensors
3.4.1. ZnO as N-Type MOS-Based Gas Sensor
3.4.2. P-Type MOS-Based Gas Sensor
3.5. Conclusion
References

 


Chapter 4. Applications of Ultrasonic Sonar Instrumentation for Real-Time Analysis of Binary Gas Mixtures


4.1. Introduction
4.2. The Instrument and Its Operating Principle
4.3. Instrument Precision and the Calibration of Acoustic Length and Electronic Time Delay
4.4. The Data Acquisition Electronics and On-line Software
4.5. Application of the Instrumentation in ATLAS
4.5.1. Commissioning of the ATLAS Thermosiphon Recirculator
4.5.1.1. The Degassing Sonar
4.5.1.2. The Angled Ultrasonic Flowmeter
4.5.2. Coolant Leak Measurements in the Triple Sonar Tube Installation
4.5.2.1. The Pixel Sub-System
4.5.2.2. The SCT Sub-System
4.6. Adaptations to Alternative Flowmeter Geometries
4.7. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

 


Chapter 5. Survey of Optical Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments


5.1. Introduction
5.2. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Theory and Background
5.2.1. Metal Oxides in Sensing
5.2.2. Metal-Metal Oxide Nanocomposites for High Temperature Sensing
5.3. Sensing Reactions and Predicting Sensing Performance with Metal – Metal Oxide Plasmonic Nanocomposites
5.3.1. Sensing Mechanisms with Metal – Metal Oxide Nanocomposites
5.3.2. Achieving Predictive Sensing in Arrays
5.3.2.1. Sensing Trends of Nanoparticle Arrays
5.3.2.2. Sensitivity vs. Thickness of the Encapsulating Matrix
5.4. Thermal Energy Harvesting
5.5. NIR Thermal Energy Harvesting [38]
5.6. Principal Component Analysis
5.7. Multipolar Resonances
5.8. Conclusions
Reference

 


Chapter 6. Advancements in Distributed Air Quality Monitoring Systems


6.1. Introduction
6.2. Data to Sample
6.3. Architecture of the Sensing Nodes
6.4. Network Organization and Communication Protocols
6.5. Post-Acquisition Data Processing and Achieved Results
6.6. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

 


Chapter 7. Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Based on Nanoporous SnO2 Films for Hydrogen Detection


7.1. Introduction
7.2. Materials and Methods
7.3. Results and Discussion
7.3.1. Structural Properties
7.3.2. Surface Morphology
7.3.3. Composition Determination
7.3.4. Thickness of the SnO2 Films
7.3.5. Gas Sensing Properties
7.4. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

 


Chapter 8. Signal-Enhancing Approaches and Rational Probe Design Enable Amplification-Free Detection of Nucleic Acids
 

8.1. Introduction
8.2. Design and Preparation of Fluorescent Probes
8.3. Sensors in Nucleic Acid Life Sciences and Biomedicine
8.3.1. Diagnostics
8.3.2. Nucleic Acid Structure and Recognition Studies
8.3.3. Discovery of New Therapeutic Targets
8.4. Specific Cases
8.4.1. New Nanoparticles for miRNA Detection
8.4.2. FISH Using Multiple Probes Targets
8.4.3. Target Enrichment and Microscopy for Cancer DNA Detection
8.4.4. DNA Origami-Dye Complexes in Immunofluorescence Detection of Autoimmune Antibodies
8.5. Conclusions
References

 


Chapter 9. Porous Silicon Photoluminescence Sensors of Organic Compounds


9.1. Introduction
9.2. Porous Silicon Formation
9.3. Porous Silicon Chemosensors
9.3.1. Measurands Used for Chemical Detection with Porous Silicon Sensors
9.3.2. Porous Silicon Chemosensors Based on Photoluminescence Quenching
9.3.3. Experimental Setup for Measurement of Photoluminescence Sensor Response of Porous Silicon
9.3.4. Porous Silicon Photoluminescence Sensor Response to Linear Aliphatic Alcohols in Gas and Liquid Phases
9.4. Functionalization of Porous Silicon Surface
9.4.1. Chemistry of Porous Silicon Surface
9.4.2. Oxidation of Porous Silicon
9.4.2.1. Reaction of Porous Silicon with Oxygen and Ozone
9.4.2.2. Reaction of Porous Silicon with Water
9.4.2.3. Reaction of Porous Silicon with Oxygen Containing Organic Species
9.4.3. Silanization
9.4.4. Formation of Si-C Bonds via Hydrosilylation
9.4.5. Formation of Si-C Bonds via Electrochemical Grafting Procedures
9.4.6. Formation of Si-C Bonds via Thermal Carbonization Procedures
9.4.7. Electrochemical Deposition of Conductive Polymers on Porous Silicon Surface
9.5. Photoluminescence Sensor Response of Functionalized Porous Silicon Surface
9.5.1. Photoluminescence Sensor Response of Oxidized and Methyl-10-Undecanoate Terminated Porous Silicon Surface – The Role of Polarity-Based Recognition
9.5.2. Photoluminescence Sensor Response of Polypyrrole Electrodeposited Porous
Silicon Surface – The Role of Polarity and Size Effects
9.6. Conclusions
References

 


Chapter 10. Fluorescent Exploration of Mono-Oxime, Salamo-Type Bis- and Tetra-Oxime Compounds for the Detection of Zn2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Pic- Ions


10.1. Introduction
10.2. Experimental
10.3. UV-Vis Titration Experiment
10.3.1. UV-Vis Titration of Zn2+ with Sensors 1, 2, 3, and 4
10.4. Fluorescent Mechanisms and Applications
10.4.1. Fluorescence Behavior of 1 to Zn2+ and Cu2+
10.4.1.1. Fluorescence Response of Sensor 1 to Zn2+
10.4.1.2. Fluorescence Response of the Zn2+ Complex to Cu2+
10.4.1.3. Fluorescence Relay Response of the Zn2+ and Cu2+ Complexes to H+ and OH−
10.4.1.4. Effect of pH and the Response Time
10.4.2. Fluorescence Exploration of Sensor 2 with Zn2+
10.4.2.1. PET and Binding Mode of Sensor 2 to Zn2+
10.4.2.2. Effect of pH
10.4.2.3. Fluorescence Detection Towards Zn2+
10.4.2.4. Competition Experiment
10.4.2.5. Fluorescence Response of Sensor 2 to Zn2+
10.4.2.6. Stokes Shift
10.4.2.7. Binding Reversibility Test for Sensor 2
10.4.3. Fluorescence Properties of Sensor 3
10.4.3.1. Fluorescence Response of 3 to Various Metal Ions
10.4.3.2. Fluorescence Response of the L-Zn2+ Complex to Anions
10.4.3.3. Effect of pH
10.4.3.4. Fluorescent Switch Based on H+ and OH−
10.4.3.5. Sensitivity and Stability Study
10.4.3.6. Water-Containing System Study
10.4.3.7. Studies on Real Samples Detection
10.4.4. Fluorescence Investigation of Sensor 4
10.4.4.1. Visual Recognition of Pb2+
10.4.4.2. Fluorescence Response of 4 to Pb2+
10.4.4.3. Fluorescence Response of 4 to Zn2+
10.5. Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

 


Chapter 11. Gated Silicon Drift Detector as Thick, Large-Area, Simple-Structure Silicon X-Ray Detector Operated by Peltier Cooling


11.1. Introduction
11.2. Proposed Simple-Structure X-Ray Detectors
11.3. Gated Silicon Drift Detector
11.3.1. Thick GSDDs Using 10 kΩ·cm Resistivity Si Substrate
11.3.1.1. Parameters of GSDD Structure
11.3.1.2. 0.625-mm-Thick GSDDs
11.3.1.3. Thicker GSDDs
11.3.1.4. Larger-Area GSDDs
11.3.2. Inexpensive GSDDs Using 2 kΩ·cm Resistivity Si Substrate
11.3.3. Silicon Pixel X-Ray Image Sensor Composed of Many Smaller-Area GSDDs
11.4. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

 


Chapter 12. Magnetohydrodynamic Pumps for Sensor Applications


12.1. Introduction 263
12.2. Theoretical Analysis for the MHD Pump 267
12.2.1. A Simple Hydraulic Resistance Model 267
12.2.2. Formulation of the Problem 269
12.2.3. Hartmann Flow Between Infinite Plates with Slip 271
12.2.4. Closed Rectangular Duct with Slip at the Side Walls 272
12.2.5. Closed Rectangular Duct with Slip at the Hartmann Walls 274
12.2.6. Open Rectangular Duct with Slip at the Bottom Wall 276
12.3. Experimental and Numerical Analysis 278
12.3.1. Bubble Traps 278
12.3.2. Experimental Setup 279
12.3.3. Numerical Modelling 281
12.4. Results 283
12.4.1. Hydrodynamic Zone 283
12.4.2. Pumping Zone 285
12.5. Conclusions 288
Acknowledgements 289
References 289

 


Chapter 13. Highly Sensitive Switching Reactance-to-Frequency Transducer


13.1. Introduction
13.2. Quartz Pulling Improvement
13.2.1. Frequency Stability
13.3. Switching Mode Temperature Compensation of the Transducer
13.3.1. Temperature Dynamic Stability
13.4. Conclusions
References

 


Chapter 14. Restoration of Infrared Detectors Signal with the Reference Area Method


14.1. Introduction
14.2. Experimental
14.2.1. Description of the Used Infrared Cameras
14.2.2. Testing Procedure
14.3. Results
14.4. Dealing with Low Signal Amplitude and Detector Noise
14.4.1. The Reference Area Method
14.4.2. Application to a Black Body
14.4.3. Application to a Real Surface
14.5. Practical Applications
14.6. Conclusions
References

 


Chapter 15. Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging


15.1. Introduction
15.2. Instrumentation
15.2.1. Sources
15.2.2. Detectors
15.3. Terahertz Spectroscopy for Detecting Biomolecules
15.3.1. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Nucleic Acids
15.3.1.1. Nucleic Acid Bases
15.3.1.2. Nucleic Acids
15.3.2. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Protein
15.3.2.1. Protein Basic Unit
15.3.2.2. Conformational Changes
15.3.2.3. Intermolecular Interactions
15.4. Terahertz Spectroscopy for Cellular Detection
15.4.1. Cancer Cells
15.4.2. Blood Cells
15.4.3. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Bacteria
15.4.3.1. Bacterial Components
15.4.3.2. Bacterial Spores
15.4.3.3. Bacterial Cells
15.5. THz Biomedical Imaging
15.5.1. Imaging Mechanisms and Mode
15.5.2. Clinical Applications
15.5.2.1. Breast Cancer
15.5.2.2. Skin Tumors
15.5.2.3. Gastrointestinal Tumors
15.5.2.4. Other Tumors
15.5.3. Clinical Adoption Perspective
15.6. Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation
15.6.1. Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation at the Level of Gene
15.6.2. Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation at the Level of Biomolecules
15.6.3. Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation at the Level of Microorganisms and Cells
15.6.4. Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation at the Level of Tissues
15.6.5. Potential Applications of Terahertz Radiation
References

 

 

Chapter 16. Reversible Immobilization of Biotinylated Baits on Regenerative Sensor Chips: Comparison of Switchable Avidin Mutants with Wild-Type Streptavidin


16.1. Introduction
16.1.1. Label-Free Biosensing
16.1.2. Methods for Reversible Immobilization of Biotinylated Bait Molecules on Sensing Surfaces
16.2. Mechanism and Parameters of Reversible Immobilization of Biotinylated Baits via Switchable Mutants of Avidin
16.3. Mechanism and Parameters of Reversible Immobilization of Biotinylated Baits via Wild-Type Streptavidin
16.4. Comparison of Avidin Mutants and Wild-type Streptavidin with Respect to Non-specific Adsorption of Proteins
16.5. Stability of Biotinylated Bait Immobilization under the Conditions Used for Prey Removal
16.6. Specific and Non-Specific Binding of DNA on Monolayers of Avidin Mutants as Compared to on Streptavidin
16.7. Strategies for Selective Functionalization of the Sample Cell as Compared to the Reference Cell
16.8. Examples for Biospecific Interaction Analysis between Biotinylated Baits and Soluble Prey Molecules
16.8.1. Biotinylation of Bait Molecules and Subsequent Immobilization of the (Strept)Avidin Surface
16.8.2. Immobilization of Biotin-Maleimide and Covalent Coupling of Thiolated Bait Molecules on the Chip Surface
16.9. Quantification of Soluble Analytes in Crude Biofluids
16.10. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

 


Chapter 17. Plasmonic Bio-Nanosensors Based on Gold Nanoparticles and Aptamers


17.1. Introduction 403
17.2. Selection of Aptamers for Sensing Applications 404
17.2.1. The Effect of Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry on Nanoparticle Sensing Properties 406
17.2.2. Surface Chemistry Effect on Nanoparticle Stability 407
17.2.3. Effect of DNA Structure on Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles 408
17.3. Plasmonic Assays for Small Molecule Analytes 411
17.3.1. Assay Design 412
17.3.2. Examples of Colorimetric Assays Based on AuNPs and Aptamers 414
17.3.2.1. Estradiol Binding Aptamer (EBA) 414
17.3.2.2. Cortisol Binding Aptamer 414
17.3.2.3. Cocaine Binding Aptamer 415
17.4. Cross Reactivity Plasmonic Aptamer-AuNP Assays 416
17.5. Conclusions 418
Acknowledgements 419
References 419


Chapter 18. Colorimetric Analysis of Au-Nanoprobes Combined with Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for the Molecular Detection of Isoniazid Resistance
in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis


18.1. Introduction
18.2. Isoniazid Resistance in MTB
18.3. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Thailand
18.4. Detection Systems Based on the Amplification of Nucleic Acid
18.5. LAMP Designed in One-point Base Mutation
18.6. Au-Nanoparticles Based Application Diagnostics
18.7. Au-Nanoparticle Probes Combined with LAMP for Detection of Isoniazid Resistance
18.7.1. Determining the Ideal Temperature for LAMP Isoniazid Resistant TB Reaction
18.7.2. Optimal Concentration of MgSO4 for LAMP Isoniazid Resistant TB Reaction
18.7.3. Optimal dNTP Concentrations for the Isoniazid Resistant TB LAMP Reaction
18.7.4. Optimal Concentration of MgSO4 for Detection Colorimetric Assay
18.7.5. Optimal Hybridization for Au-Nanoprobes Assay
18.7.6. Au-Nanoprobes Colorimetric Assay
18.8. Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

 


Chapter 19. Live Bacteria Counting and Colony Recognition Based on Advanced Embedded Sensor and Computer Vision


19.1. Introduction
19.2. Theoretical and Technological Background
19.2.1. Fundamentals and Microbiology Concepts
19.2.1.1. Microbial Growth Phases
19.2.1.2. Bacterial Growth on Plates Based on Serial Dilutions and Plating
19.2.1.3. Manual Counting Method by Experts
19.2.2. Fundamentals and Concepts of Computer Vision and Imaging Sensor
19.2.2.1. Bias Removal
19.2.2.2. Dark Current Removal
19.2.2.3. Flat Fielding
19.3. Aggregation of Computer Intelligence
19.3.1. Acquisition Images Module
19.3.2. Pre-Processing Module
19.3.3. Processing Module
19.3.4. Post-Processing Module
19.3.5. Analysis Module
19.4. Examples of the Application of the Intelligent Method for Live Bacteria Counting and Colony Recognition
19.5. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

 


Chapter 20. Recent Development of Data Acquisition and Transmission Systems Applied to Decentralized Photovoltaic Plants


20.1. Introduction
20.2. First Phase: DATS Using GPRS/GSM Module and USB Communication
20.2.1. First DATS Implementation and Results
20.2.2. First DATS Conclusions
20.3. Second Phase: DATS Using Bluetooth Communication and Embedded WiFi Module
20.3.1. DATS Using Bluetooth Communication
20.3.2. DATS Using Embedded WiFi Module
20.3.3. WiFi DATS Development
20.3.4. WiFi DATS Results
20.3.5. Second Phase Conclusions
20.4. Third Phase: DATS Using Internet of Things (IoT) and Cloud Communication
20.4.1. REMS Development
20.4.2. Developed Web Monitor
20.4.3. Third DATS Implementation and Results
20.4.4. Third DATS Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

 


Chapter 21. Serum-Biomarker Thymidine Kinase 1 for Early Discovery of Tumour Process – 160,086 Participants Using a Sensitive Immune-ECL-Dot-Blot Detection System


21.1. Introduction
21.2. Methods of Assessing for Evaluating Human TK1
21.2.1. Tumour-Related Markers
21.2.2. The Prospects of STK1p in Application of Malignancy
21.2.3. Methods of Human STK1
21.2.3.1. Serum TK Activity (STKa) Assay
21.2.3.2. Serum TK1 Protein (STK1p) Concentration Assay
21.3. Is STK1p Useful in Clinical Oncology and Health Screening?
21.3.1. The REMARK Recommendations
21.3.1.1. Prognostic Potential of STK1p in Breast Carcinoma Patients
21.3.2. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Analysis of STK1p
21.4. STK1p in Application of Routine Health Screening
21.4.1. The Concept of Precancer and Risk Diseases Associated with Tumour Progression
21.4.1.1. Precancers
21.4.1.2. Risk-Diseases Associated with Precancer/Cancer Progression
21.4.2. Elevated STK1p Values in Relation to Precancer/Tumour-Related Risk Diseases
21.4.2.1. STK1p Value in Health Screening: Meta studies
21.4.2.2. Comparison between STK1p of Low and Elevated Groups in City-Dwelling People
21.4.2.3. STK1p in Relation to Tumour Malignancies in City-Dwelling Individuals and Oil-Field Workers
21.4.3. Distribution of STK1p Concentration in Healthy and Tumour Disease-Linked Groups
21.4.3.1. Characteristics of the Distribution of STK1p Concentration in a Healthy Disease-Free Group
21.4.3.2. Characteristics of the Distribution of STK1p Concentration in a Tumour Disease Linked Developing Group
21.4.3.3. Evidence for Significant Differences in STK1p Distribution between a Healthy, Disease-Free Group and a Tumour Disease Linked Group
21.4.3.4. Distribution of Concentration of STK1p, AFP and CEA, a Comparative Study in Health Screening
21.4.4. Cancer Incident Rate in Health Screening
21.4.4.1. Cancer Incident Rate in Health Screening
21.4.4.2. STK1p Compared to AFP, CEA and CA19.9 in Respect to Mortality
21.4.4.3. STK1p Value in Relation to Individual Follows-Up
21.4.5. Individual Cases of STK1p in Short- or Long-Term Follow-Up
21.4.5.1. Elevated STK1p is Associated with Increased Size of the Benign Tumour Tissue
21.4.5.2. Elevated STK1p Predicts an Earlier Risk Assessment of Malignant Tumour than Imaging
21.4.5.3. Elevated STK1p in Relation to Precancer Transition into Malignancy
21.4.5.4. STK1p in Relation to Clinical Stages
21.4.6. Comparison of STK1p Concentration and STK1 Activity in Healthy Screening
21.5. Summary and Conclusions
21.6. Pending Problems and Future Research Prospects
21.6.1. TK1 Expression in Tumour Tissue in Relation to TK1 in Serum
21.6.2. TK1 Expression in Cell Nucleus
21.6.3. TK1 Release to Blood Serum
21.6.4. TK1 in Relation to Clinical Parameters
21.6.5. Random Mutations due to DNA Replication Causes Cancer
21.6.6. Reducing Un-Controlled Increases in New Cancer Cases: A Combination of Prevention and Early Detection of Tumours by STK1p
Acknowledgements
References


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