bullet Air Gauges: Static and Dynamic Characteristics


  Title: Air Gauges: Static and Dynamic Characteristics

  Authors: Czesław Janusz Jermak, Mirosław Rucki

  Publisher: International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing

  Formats: printable pdf (Acrobat), 150 pages

  Price: 95.95 EUR (e-book in pdf format) and 119.95 EUR (print hardcover book). Taxes and shipping costs are included.

  Pubdate: 15 August 2012

  BN: 20120817-XX

  ISBN: 978-84-616-0237-7



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 Book Description


The air gauging principle is known for decades and is widely applied in a wide range of the dimensional measurements, especially in motor and aerospace industry. Measurement with air applied almost all possible parameters of the flow: air gauges exploited rotameters (flow type air gauges), Venturi chambers (velocity type air gauges), water columns (low pressure air gauges) and other manometers directly indicating the back-pressure (high pressure air gauges). They were combined into differential measurement units, connected with compensation devices, incorporated into ejectors and other complicated units increasing their multiplication and measuring range.


Air gauges provided both contact and non-contact measurement, selection and control signals in active and passive control. Various transducers and manometers were connected with different types of electric devices to generate measurement signals for further processing. Introduction of piezoresistive transducers enabled to achieve an electronic signal and convert it into digital one.


Air Gauges: Static and Dynamic Characteristics presents results of the researches and theoretical investigations on the air gauges performed mostly in the Division of Metrology and Measurement Systems, Poznan University of Technology, Poland: 6 governmental projects were performed successfully by the research team, with 26 patents gained. Further 5 patent applications were initiated, and 4 industrial implementations of innovative devices were made. Tens of the diploma works and two doctoral theses were prepared, with more than hundred publications. Some of the projects involved international cooperation, thanks to the series of CEEPUS programs.


This book does not provide the very basic knowledge on the air gauges available in any handbook on dimensional measurement, and it requires some knowledge on the flow, measurement, uncertainty estimation principles, and other engineering sciences. The reader will improve his knowledge on the air gauge performance and modeling, will find description of the investigation apparatus and interesting patented solutions of the innovative air gauging heads and measuring systems.






Chapter 1. Air Gauging

Chapter 2. Investigation Apparatus for the Air Gauges Metrological Characteristics
             2.1. Static Characteristics of the Back-pressure Air Gauges
             2.2. Dynamical Characteristics of Air Gauge
             2.3. The Uncertainty Analysis of Air Gauge Calibration
             2.4. Innovative Constructions of the Air Gauges

Chapter 3. Application of the Second Critical Parameters in Simulation of the Air Gauge Characteristics
             3.1. Introduction 31
             3.2. The Second Critical Parameters of the Flow
             3.3. The Second Critical Parameters and the Nozzle Geometry
             3.4. Comparison of Different Formulas
             3.5. Experimental Determination of the Second Critical Parameters for the Nozzles
             3.6. The Simulations of Static Characteristics Based on Second Critical Parameters
             3.7. The Initial Data
             3.8. The Iteration Steps
             3.9. Verification of the Algorithm
             3.10. Conclusions

Chapter 4. Static Characteristics of the Air Gauges
             4.1. Introduction
             4.2. Description of the Phenomena in the Flapper-Nozzle Area
             4.3. The Dissipation Effect Approach
             4.4. Outflow Coefficient
             4.5. Investigation Results
             4.5.1 Results for Diameters dw
             4.5.2. Results for Diameters dp
             4.5.3. The Influence of the Normalized Outer Diameter
             4.6. Conclusions

Chapter 5. Dynamic Characteristics of the Air Gauges
             5.1. Introduction
             5.2. Flow Structure in the Measuring Chamber
             5.3. k-ε Mathematical Model of the Flow
             5.4. Boundary Conditions
             5.5. Differential Approximation
             5.6. Approximation and Iteration
             5.7. Investigation Results
             5.8. Practical Recommendations
             5.9. Conclusions

Chapter 6. Some Innovative Constructions of the Air Gauges and Developed Measurement Systems
             6.1. Introduction
             6.2. Asymmetrical Back-Pressure Air Gauges
             6.2.1. Polygonal Measuring Nozzles
             6.2.2. Air Gauges with Skewed Nozzles
             6.2.3. Asymmetric Injectors
             6.3. Measuring Systems Based on the Air-Gauges
             6.3.1. Devices of PNEUTRONIK Series
             6.3.2. GEOFORM Device
    Data Collection
    Data Processing
    Closing the Profile
    Calculation of the Profile and Out-of-roundness
             6.3.3. Device PNEUSKANER for Measurement of the Flat Surface Profiles
             6.3.4. Advanced System for Air Gauging PneuStar A01
             6.4. Conclusions





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