bullet Designing Nanosensors for Chemical and Biological Applications

        

  Title: Designing Nanosensors for Chemical and Biological Applications

  Editor: Nada F. Atta

  Publisher: International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing

  Formats: hardcover (print book) and pdf Acrobat (e-book) 264 pages

  Price: 95.00 EUR for e-book and 115.00 EUR

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  Pubdate: 8 May 2017

  ISBN: 978-84-697-3290-8

  e-ISBN: 978-84-697-3291-5

 

 

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Designing Nanosensors for Chemical and Biological Applications

 Book Description

 

 

The present book aims at providing the readers with some of the most recent development of new and advanced materials and their applications as nanosensors. Examples of such materials are ferrocene and cyclodextrines as mediators, ionic liquid crystals, self-assembled monolayers on macro/ nano-structures, perovskite nanomaterials and functionalized carbon materials. The emphasis of the book will be devoted to the difference in properties and its relation to the mechanism of detection and specificity. Miniaturization on the other hand, is of unique importance for sensors applications. The chapters of this book present the usage of robust, small, sensitive and reliable sensors that take advantage of the growing interest in nano-structures. Different chemical species are taken as good example of the determination of different chemical substances industrially, medically and environmentally. The book includes five chapters namely liquid crystal-nanostructures hybrids and its sensor applications, importance and applications of some mediators in chemistry, self-assembly monolayers: new strategy of surface modification for sensor applications, perovskites: smart nanomaterials for sensory applications and the last chapter about functionalized carbon based materials for sensing and biosensing applications: from graphite to graphene.

 

 

Contents:

 

Contributors


Preface


1. Liquid Crystal-nanostructures Hybrids and its Sensor Applications

1.1. Introduction
1.2. History of Liquid Crystals
1.3. Classification of Liquid Crystals
1.3.1. Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Mesophases
1.3.1.1. Calamitic Mesogens
1.3.1.2. Discotic Mesogens
1.3.1.3. Bent-core Mesogens
1.3.2. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal
1.4. Characterization of Mesophases
1.4.1. Polarizing Optical Microscopy (POM)
1.4.2. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
1.4.3. Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD)
1.5. Applications
1.5.1. Uses of Liquid Crystals
1.5.1.1. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
1.5.1.2. Liquid Crystal Thermometers
1.5.1.3. Liquid crystal Lasers
1.5.1.4. Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal (PDLC)
1.5.1.5. Soapy Water
1.5.1.6. Electrochemical Modified Sensors
1.5.2. Uses of Ionic Liquids
1.5.2.1. Electrochemical Modified Sensor
1.5.2.2. Drug Delivery (Biological Reactions Media)
1.5.2.3. Treatment of High-level Nuclear Waste
1.5.2.4. Removing of Metal Ions
1.6. Conclusion
References

 


2. Importance and Applications of Some Mediators in Chemistry
2.1. Mediators and Electrochemistry
2.1.1. Chemically Modified Electrodes
2.2. Applications of Chemically Modified Electrodes
2.3. Approaches to Chemically Modified Electrodes
2.4. Examples of Some Important Modifiers
2.4.1. Ferrocene
2.4.1.1. Structure
2.4.1.2. Bonding
2.4.1.3. Redox Chemistry

2.4.1.4. Applications of Ferrocene and its Derivatives
2.4.2. Cyclodextrins
2.4.2.1. Structure
2.4.2.2. Types of Cyclodextrins
2.4.2.3. Gamma-cyclodextrin
2.4.2.4. Beta- cyclodextrin
2.4.2.5. Applications
2.4.2.6. Analytical Techniques to Characterize Drug–CD Complexes
2.4.3. Phthalocyanine
2.4.3.1. Properties
2.4.3.2. Phthalocyanines Derivatives
2.4.3.3. Applications
2.4.3.4. Examples of Metallophthalocyanine
2.5. Conclusion
References

 


3. Self-Assembly Monolayers: New Strategy of Surface Modification for Sensor Applications
3.1. General Introduction
3.1.1. SAM Structure
3.1.2. Different Types of SAMs
3.1.2.1. SAM of Organothiols
3.1.2.2. SAMs of Phosphates
3.1.2.3. SAMs of Phthalocyanines
3.1.2.4. SAMs of Silanes
3.1.2.5. SAMs of Carbenes and Diazonium Salts
3.1.3. Different Types of Substrates for SAMs
3.1.3.1. Gold, Platinum and Glassy Carbon
3.1.3.2. Mercury
3.1.3.3. Silver and Copper
3.1.3.4. Nickel
3.1.3.5. Palladium
3.1.3.6. Zinc
3.1.3.7. Silicon
3.1.4. Assembly Process of Alkanethiols Over Gold
3.2. Methods for SAMs Preparation
3.2.1. Chemical Deposition of SAMs
3.2.1.1. Solution Deposition
3.2.1.2. Gas Phase Deposition
3.2.2. Electrochemical Deposition of SAMs
3.3. Some Factors Related to the SAMs
3.3.1. Effect of Chain Length
3.3.2. Effect of Mixed SAMs
3.3.3. Effect of Number of S-atoms in the Thiol Compound
3.3.4. Effect of Time of Deposition in Chemical Growth Method
3.3.5. Effect of Macro and Nano Au Substrate
3.4. Characterization of SAM Modified Electrodes

3.4.1. Electrochemical Characterization
3.4.1.1. EIS
3.4.1.2. Electrochemical Desorption
3.4.2. Surface Characterization
3.4.2.1. XPS
3.4.2.2. FT-IR
3.4.2.3. Raman Spectroscopy
3.4.2.4. SEM
3.4.2.5. TEM
3.4.2.6. AFM
3.4.2.7. NMR
3.4.2.8. UV-Vis
3.4.2.9. Contact Angle Goniometry
3.5. Application of SAMs
3.5.1. Metal Sensors
3.5.2. Neurotransmitter Sensors
3.5.3. Sensor for Pharmaceutically Important Drugs
3.5.4. Sensor for Ascorbic and Uric Acids
3.5.5. Immunosensor
3.5.6. DNA Sensor
3.5.7. Hydrogen Peroxide Sensors
3.5.8. Glucose Sensors
3.5.9. Cholesterol Sensors
References

 


4. Perovskites: Smart Nanomaterials for Sensory Applications
4.1. Introduction to Perovskite Oxides Nano-materials
4.2. Models for Perovskites
4.2.1. The Ionic Models
4.2.2. Madelung and Electrostatic Potentials
4.2.3. Covalent Mixing
4.3. General Characteristics of Perovskites
4.4. Doping of Perovskites
4.5. Some Examples of Perovskites
4.5.1. Sr2PdO3
4.5.2. NdFeO3
4.6. Methods of Perovskite Synthesis
4.6.1. Citrate–nitrate Combustion Methods
4.6.2. Co-precipitation Method
4.6.3. Microwave Synthesis
4.7. Characterization of Perovskites
4.7.1. XRD 166
4.7.2. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM)
4.7.3. Brunauer Emmett Teller Measurements (BET)
4.7.4. Thermal Analysis
4.7.5. FTIR
4.7.6. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

4.8. Applications of Perovskites
4.8.1. Gas Sensor
4.8.2. Glucose and H2O2 Sensor
4.8.3. Neurotransmitters Sensor
4.8.4. Sensor for Drugs
4.8.5. Sensor for Amino Acids
References

 


5. Functionalized Carbon Based Materials for Sensing and Biosensing Applications: from Graphite to Graphene
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Graphite and Carbon Paste
5.2.1. Polymeric Functionalization
5.2.2. Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles
5.2.3. Mediator and Organic Modifier
5.3. Graphene
5.3.1. Graphene Functionalization
5.3.2. Hydrogenation and Halogenation of Graphene
5.3.3. Hydroxylation of Graphene
5.3.4. Carboxylation and Addition of Organic Groups
5.3.5. Substitutional Doping with Foreign Atoms
5.4. Combined Carbon Materials


References
Index

 

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