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Vol. 66, No. 4, April 2006




Table of Contents










Status of the MEMS industry in 2006


This article highlights the latest business vision of the MEMS industry by Yole Développement and answer questions what could happen in the MEMS industry and what are the key business trends. Different MEMS product families and market trends also reviewed.


JC Eloy

Yole Développement,

45 rue Sainte Geneviиve, 69006 Lyon, France

Tel.: +33 472 83 01 90, fax: +33 472 83 01 83

E-mail: eloy@yole.fr



Pull-In Voltage of Fixed-Fixed End Type MEMS Switches with Variative Electrostatic Area


In this paper we developed a new approach to calculation of pull-in voltage of fixed-fixed end type MEMS switches. In the previous works Pull-in voltage has been calculated on a lumped model, when one of them used a distributed model by assuming the electrostatic area is applied the whole of the surface of the beam. In the present work, we used a distributed model to determinate the pull-in voltage. To do this the nonlinear governing equation of the beam with non-uniform electrostatic pressure that applied in the part of beam has been derived. The derived nonlinear equation has been solved numerically and has been showed that the results of our approach are more accurate than the other previous works.


Hamed Sadeghian, Ghader Rezazadeh, Ehsan Malekpour, Ayla Shafipour

Mechanical Engineering Department, Urmia University, Urmia, IRAN

Tel. +98-914-145-1407, fax. +98-441-277-7022

E-mail: Hamed.sadeghian@gmail.com   g.rezazadeh@mail.urmia.ac.ir



Eliminating of the Residual Stresses Effect in the Fixed-Fixed End Type MEMS Switches by Piezoelectric Layers


In this paper, a novel method has been developed to eliminate the tensile or compressive residual stresses effects that have been created due to the fabrication sequence. In the developed model, the tensile or compressive residual stresses in the fixed-fixed end type MEMS switches have been eliminated by using of two piezoelectric layers that have been located on the upper and lower surfaces of switch. The nonlinear governing differential equation of the fixed-fixed end type MEMS switch has been derived by considering the piezoelectric layers and residual stresses. The pull-in voltage and the switching time have been calculated for different applied voltage to the piezoelectric layers. The results show that the both tensile and residual stresses can be eliminated by means of a small applied voltage to the piezoelectric layers.


Rezazadeh Ghader1, Tahmasebi Ahmadali2

Mech. Eng. Dept. Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

E-mail: 1g.rezazadeh@mail.urmia.ac.ir



Quartz Crystal Based Microgravimetric Immunobiosensors


Piezoelectric crystal immunosensors have attracted considerable interest in the last few years since the monitoring of a specific substance is central in many applications. These sensors work on the principle of measuring a small change in resonant frequency of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal due to change in mass on the sensor surface. Because of their low cost and high Q-factors, these miniaturized sensors show fast response time, high sensitivity, and are suitable for mass production using standard fabrication techniques. Arrays of such sensors could be fabricated to cover ranges of a particular sensing property and have the potential for seamless integration with CMOS-based electronics. The present article demonstrates a type of piezoelectric crystal immunosensor using simple design of frequency oscillator and monitoring circuitry for biomedical applications. The basic criterion for immobilizing biomolecules (receptor etc.) on sensor surface for immunoassay application is briefly discussed.


C. Raman SURI

Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39-A, 

Chandigarh - 160036, India

Tel.: +91-172-2695215; fax: +91-172-2690632

E-mail: raman@imtech.res.in





Magnetic Rotary Encoder System-on-Chip


Austriamicrosystems is providing its AS5040 small size 10-bit magnetic rotary encoder IC to encoder specialist Megatron Elektronik AG & Co. The AS5040 will be included in a broad range of the Megatron’s next-generation contactless rotary encoder products.


The innovative AS5040 magnetic rotary encoder IC is a true system-on-chip (SoC) integrating field sensing Hall elements, analog front-end and digital signal processing. The rotary position is contactlessly sensed by a small rotating magnet that is placed above the device. The AS5040 can detect 1,024 absolute positions in a full turn, which corresponds to a resolution of 0.35 degrees. 


Because of its contactless measurement method, the AS5040 is ideally suited for harsh environments. It is highly reliable and immune to adverse environmental conditions such as dust, moisture, vibration and even unwanted magnetic fields. Additional features include a user programmable zero/index position and a safety feature that monitors for the presence of the magnet ...

Austriamicrosystems AG
Schloss Premstätten
A-8141 Unterpremstätten, Austria
Tel.: +43/3136/500-0
Fax.: +43/3136/52501
E-mail: info@austriamicrosystems.com

AS5040 magnetic rotary encoder IC



Flexible Candlestick Sensor Measures Temperature and Air Velocity


Norwood, MA - Advanced Thermal Solutions has introduced the MS 1000-CS-WC, a flexible, robust candlestick-design sensor that measures both temperature and air velocity for characterizing thermal conditions in electronic systems.


The candlestick MS 1000-CS-WC sensor is narrow and low profile to minimize disturbance of heat flow in the test domain. Its flexible, plastic-sleeved stem facilitates installation and repositioning during the testing process. Multiple sensors can be easily installed to thoroughly map a system’s thermal and airflow conditions. The use of a single sensor to measure both temperature and velocity eliminates errors that can occur when airflow is non-isothermal.

MS 1000-CS-WC sensors are calibrated for low (natural convection) and high velocity flows. They are capable of temperature measurements ranging from -30 to +150°C ±1C. Velocity measurements range from 0 to 51 m/s (10,000 ft/min) ±2%. The sensor’s base is 9.5 mm in diameter. Three different heights are available: 9, 12, and 20 mm ...


Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.

89-27 Access Road

Norwood, MA 02062 USA

Tel: 781-769-2800

Fax: 781.769.9979

Temperature sensor MS 1000-CS-WC



Two-Wire Electronic Vibration Switch


April 3, 2006, Depew, NY, USA - The IMI Sensors Division of PCB Piezotronics, Inc. launches the all new 686A Series two-wire electronic vibration switch. This ground-breaking switch technology is microprocessor controlled with no moving parts or mechanical adjustments required.


The introduction of the new two-wire switch is revolutionizing the vibration switch market by combining the reliability and dynamics of an electronic switch with the convenience of a mechanical switch, in one innovative compact design. The unique blueprint of the 686A Series includes the (U.S. patent pending) Magnetic Adjustable Vibration Threshold (MAVT(tm)). This feature electronically adjusts the threshold value while the switch is installed on running equipment through a magnetically activated sensor. This allows for immediate installation and protection with no need for equipment shutdown. Now, protecting essential equipment such as pumps, motors, and fans can be reliably implemented without the burden of a complex setup ...


Eric Yax
Division Manager
IMI Sensors Division
3425 Walden Avenue, Depew, NY 14043-2495
Tel.:(800) 959-4464 ext. 2377, fax: (716) 684-3823
E-mail: eyax@pcb.com

686A Series vibration switch



Spring-Loaded DC-LVDT Position Sensors Simplify Mechanical Set-up in Automation Applications


Pennsauken, NJ.- Macro Sensors introduces the GHSE 750 line of 24 volt Spring-Loaded position sensors that offer accurate position measurement in a variety of dimensional gaging applications. Available in ranges of 0.100 inches (2.5 mm) to 4.00 inches (100 mm), the maximum linearity error for a GHSE 750 Series sensor is "0.25% of full scale output.  Offered in a ready-to-use package for position measurements, the configuration of the GHSE 750 sensor supports longer range gaging applications.


Built-in electronics result in a position sensor that operates from DC inputs of 15-24V DC and generates a pre-calibrated 0-10 Volt DC output. The output from the GHSE 750 Series is designed to operate with most PLCs, digital indicators, A/D converters, computer-based data processors, and QC data collection systems ...


Eileen Otto,

U.S. Route 130 North, Bldg. 22,

Pennsauken, NJ  08110-1541

Fax: 856-317-1005

Tel.: 856-662-8000

E-mail: sales@macrosensors.com

GHSE 750 Position Sensors



Rotary Torque Sensor Systems Ideal for Automotive Driveline Testing


April 3, 2006, Depew, NY, USA - Rotary Torque Sensor Systems from the Force/Torque Division of PCB Piezotronics, Inc. are ideally designed for automotive driveline and powertrain dynamometers and other torque measurement applications that require a robust torque transducer. The TORKDISC(r) features a telemetry system consisting of an on-board electronic module that converts torque signals into a high-speed 16-bit digital output. Rotary Transformer styles are also available that use a non-contact, maintenance-free, design that eliminates the need for replacing worn brushes, as is the case with conventional slip ring type rotating torque sensors.


Typical applications include dynamometer testing of gasoline and diesel engines, transmissions, transfer cases, differentials and drive shafts. Additional applications include torque studies on pumps, fans and electric motors. Rotary torque sensors are offered in capacities from 50 in-oz to 225 k in-lb (0.35 N-m to 25.4 k N-m) full-scale and maximum speeds to 15,000 RPM ...


Bob Metz
Technical Sales Specialist
Force/Torque Division
3425 Walden Avenue, Depew, NY 14043-2495 USA
Tel.: (888) 684-0004 ext. 2683, fax: (716) 684-8877
E-mail: bmetz@pcb.com

Rotary Torque Sensor Systems



Innovative Multi-Spectral IR Flame Detector


Lake Forest, CA -With a next-generation multi-spectral infrared flame sensor that incorporates neural network technology (NNT), the new FL4000 Intelligent Multi-Spectral IR (MSIR) Flame Detection System from General Monitors sets a new industry standard for performance, reliability and value. The FL4000 gives process and plant engineers a potent new tool in protecting people, equipment and facilities from dangerous hydrocarbon flame sources.


The FL4000’s MSIR detector makes use of four separate infrared spectrums sampling different IR spectral areas to detect a flame. Each sensor’s analog signals is sampled and then converted into digital format for initial signal pre-processing to extract time and frequency information. With its highly reliable NNT flame discrimination algorithm, the FL4000 detector is highly immune to false alarms while at the same time offering extended range (up to 230 feet) and field-of-view (FOV) characteristics (100° at 50 ft.) ...


Ardem Antabian,

Product Manager

General Monitors,

26776 Simpatica Circle, Lake Forest, CA, 92630

Tel: 949-581-4464, fax: 949-581-1151

E-mail: etech@generalmonitors.com

IR Flame Detector



Human Vibration Meter Helps Meets EC and ISO Directives and Standards


Provo, UT, USA - Larson Davis has introduced the Human Vibration Meter (HVM) utility software, known as HVManager (TM), for Vibration Exposure Assessment and Management, designed to provide instantaneous tool assessments to all new standards, including the HSE recommended points system; EU physical agents directive 2002/44/EC; ISO 5349; and ISO 2631.


With an easy to use Graphic User Interface (GUI) and one click of a button, HVM 100 data can be downloaded directly from the instrument and saved into a tool database. This permits vibrating equipment users and manufacturers to create databases of HVM100 Human Vibration Meter measurements for hand-arm and whole-body vibration. Daily vibration exposure for a worker using multiple tools for varying activities can then be generated in a single report ...


Dr. John Carey
Marketing Coordinator
Larson Davis, Inc., 1681 West 820 North
Provo, UT 84601
Tel: 801.375.0177, fax: 801.375.0182
Email: jcarey@larsondavis.com

Human Vibration Meter



Interlock-Switch Sensor Interface IC


Melexis presents its MLX16305 interlock-switch sensor interface IC. The MLX16305 allows fail safe monitoring of current modulated sensors, typically remote interlock switches with diagnostics requirements.


Interlock switches currently are in use at high volume both in Europe and in the US with resistive as well as 2-wire Hall effect switches for seat belt buckle presence detection. Other typically automotive applications include presence detection of airbags, and monitoring of door, hood and trunk latches and locks. The MLX16305 is ideal also for industrial applications with safety interlock switches, like security doors in machinery, tools or appliances. This IC may also be used to interface with 2-wire analog sensors in general, for instance in combination with the MLX90308/90314 sensor interface ICs in current mode ...


Mr. Tanguy Scorpati
Transportstraat 1, 3980 Tessenderlo
Tel.: +32 (0) 12 67 20 02, fax: +32 (0) 12 67 20 03
E-mail: tas@melexis.com

MLX16305 interlock-switch sensor interface IC



Level Sensor Provides Fast Delivery and Simplified Installation


Cary, N.C. -  MTS Systems Corp. Sensors Division’s MC420 Liquid-Level sensor has simplified the process of implementing a liquid-level sensor for applications such as water treatment, petrochemical and chemical processing. Part of the M-Series, the MC420 is available in a limited variety of pre-determined lengths, is packaged with its own float, and is shipped with its own magnet to allow for easy two-step calibration.


Easy two-step calibration is accomplished, without removing the electronic housing, by using the MTS-supplied magnet. Standard calibration can also be completed using the HART® interface. Like all M-Series sensors, the MC420 uses a magnetostrictive design and has only one moving part—the float. This simple design ensures that no scheduled maintenance or recalibration is required. MC420 level transmitters offer 4-20 mA loop-powered circuitry for level measurement, and are available in lengths from 20 inches to 18 feet. They are ideal for applications such as general process control, batching tanks, inorganic chemicals, fuels and solvents, industrial chemicals, detergents and soaps, lubricating oils and interface measurement ...


Adrian Totten, MTS
Marketing & Sales Manager

3001 Sheldon Drive

Cary NC, 27513
Tel.: 919-677-2332, fax. 919-677-0200
E-mail: adrian.totten@mts.com

MC420 Liquid-Level sensor



Programmable Universal Transmitter for Vibration Sensors


April 3, 2006, Depew, NY, USA - The IMI Sensors Division of PCB Piezotronics, Inc. introduces Model 682A06 DIN rail mountable universal transmitter. This module provides loop power for IMI's 4 to 20 mA vibration sensors, and is fully programmable using its detachable display. Once programmed, configurations are saved in the display unit for mirrored installation on subsequent modules.


The universal transmitter accepts input signals from all 640 Series 4 to 20 mA vibration transmitters; as well as VDC, ohm, RTD, TC, and potentiometer inputs. It provides output for current, voltage, and two Form A relays. Additional features include LED indicators for operation status and relay outputs, password protection for saved configurations, and error diagnostics ...


Andrea Mohn
Marketing Coordinator
PCB Piezotronics, Inc., 3425 Walden Avenue
Depew, NY 14043-2495
Tel.: (800) 828-8840 ext. 2216
Fax: (716) 684-0987
E-mail: mktg@pcb.com

682A06 universal transmitter





Market is Expected to be Multiplied by 3 in 6 Years, Representing More Than 5% of Total MEMS Markets


Today, most of the contract manufacturers are full of work, both for development projects and production: we expect that the MEMS foundry and contract manufacturer markets will reach total revenue of more than 500 M$ in 2010, (a market multiplied by 3 in a 6 years period).


Yole Développement has edited a brand new analysis of the markets, strategies and evolution of the MEMS contract manufacturers and MEMS foundries. For the first time, you can have access to unique features:

Yole Développement is also providing details on the following points, which are fundamental for this industry:

David Jourdan

Tel.: +33 (0)472 83 01 90

E-mail: jourdan@yole.fr



Evaluation of the Business Potential and Reality of MEMS Applications in Mobile Phones Market


Announced since years, MEMS devices are entering step by step into the mobile phone business and they are key devices to leverage these new functions. Linked to that, the main industrial companies are now entering the MEMS fields to take part in this growing business. According to new estimation, the market will reach 750 M$ in 2009. The report is bringing a lot of value both to MEMS manufacturers, suppliers to MEMS manufacturers and system manufacturers in order to understand the business potential, the technology status and who is doing what for strategic and marketing decision making.


In 2005, Yole Développement released our first report on the analysis of the MEMS applications for the mobile phone industry. Since our first analysis, a lot of things happened on the market. MEMS devices for mobile phones analyzed in the report include:

David Jourdan

Tel.: +33 (0)472 83 01 90

E-mail: jourdan@yole.fr





Multisensor Data and Information Processing

(Special Issue, August 2005)


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