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Asymmetric Warfare 2006

17-18 October, 2006, Arlington, VA, USA

Vol. 70, No. 8, August 2006




Table of Contents





MEMS Capacitive Micro Thermometer Based on Tip Deflection of Bimetallic Cantilever Beam


A capacitive micro thermometer based on the tip deflection of bimetallic cantilever beam was designed and described in this paper. The governing thermo mechanical equations were derived and solved analytically. The temperature rising was expressed with respect to capacitance change of a comb drive. The results of beam deflection were compared well with the existing results ...


Shahriar Kouravand, Ghader Rezazadeh, Mehdi Sabet, Ahmadali Tahmasebi,

Urmia University, Iran

E-mail: g.rezazadeh@mail.urmia.ac.ir



Estimation of Corrosion of Metals Using Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor System


A new approach to probe the surface roughness of mild steel due to atmospheric corrosion using a fiber optic sensor system is described. The scattering principle is used to estimate the average surface roughness that is observed between 2.85 m and 5.40 m for the corroded surface and 0.11 m and 0.16 m for the polished surface respectively. The maximum sensitive region is estimated below the 0.10 mm for the polished surface. Specular and diffuse reflection is measured at normal incidence of fiber. Reflected intensity of corroded surface can be used to estimate the roughness, Ra. The rate of corrosion is determined by weight loss measurement technique and it is found to be linear with measured average roughness, Ra. This work suggests the possibility of using average surface roughness, Ra of atmospheric corroded mild steel to predict the approximated value of rate of corrosion ...


A. Balaji Ganesh, T.K. Radhakrishnan, G. Gobi, D. Sastikumar

National Institute of Technology, Tamilnadu, India

E-mail: abganesh_nitt@yahoo.com



A Novel Structure for MEMS Based Varactors


A novel structure with electro-mechanically tunable capacitor for RF application is presented. The suspended electrodes are designed in such a way that both are electrostaticaly displaceable. This double plate moveability feature of the capacitor increases the tuning range. In this structure, there is no need for cantilever beams, which introduce considerable series resistance to the capacitor and decrease the quality factor. Therefore, our proposed varactor achieves better Q in a smaller area. The simulated one pF capacitor shows a Q of 40 at 1 GHz and a tuning range of 42%. Pull-in voltage is 3.6 V, which is a reasonable value for submicron CMOS technologies ...


Ebrahim Abbaspour-Sani, Naser Nasirzadeh, G.Dadashzadeh,

Urmia University, Urmia Iran

E-mail: e.abbaspour@mail.urmia.ac.ir



Preparation and Study of NH3 Gas Sensing Behavior of Fe2O3 Doped ZnO Thick Film Resistors


The preparation, characterization and gas sensing properties of pure and Fe2O3-ZnO mixed oxide semiconductors have been investigated. The mixed oxides were obtained by mixing ZnO and Fe2O3 in the proportion 1:1, 1:0.5 and 0.5:1. Pure ZnO was observed to be insensitive to NH3 gas.  However, mixed oxides (with ZnO: Fe2O3 =1:0.5) were observed to be highly sensitive to ammonia gas. Upon exposure to NH3 gas, the barrier height of Fe2O3-ZnO intergranular regions decreases markedly due to the chemical transformation of Fe2O3 into well conducting ferric ammonium hydroxide leading to a drastic decrease in resistance. The crucial gas response was found to NH3 gas at 3500C and no cross response was observed to other hazardous and polluting gases. The effects of microstructure and doping concentration on the gas response, selectivity, response and recovery of the sensor in the presence of NH3 gas were studied and discussed ...


D. R. Patil, L. A. Patil,

Materials Research Laboratory, Pratap College, India

E-mail: plalchand_phy_aml@yahoo.co.in



Novel Non-Stoichiometric Manganese Cobalt Nickel Oxide Composite as Humidity Sensor Through Solid-State Electrical Conductivity Measurements


Equimolar amounts of manganese(II) chloride, cobalt(III) nitrate and nickel(II) chloride in aqueous solution were reacted with ammonia and the resulting precipitate of hydroxides was heated to 7500 C in 6h to yield a non stoichiometric oxides having a composition of Mn0.06Co0.6Ni0.6O2.5 as analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy to a pellet and sintered at 600oC. Characterization of the material has been made with AAS, Far-IR, TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, VSM and electrical conductance measurement. The far-IR spectra indicated the presence of metal-oxygen bonds and the discrete nature of the oxide was established from power X-ray diffraction pattern recorded at room temperature ...


R. Sundaram, K. Maniraj

Maamallan Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India

E-mail: sundaramrsram@rediffmail.com, skmani76raj@yahoo.co.in



Some Aspects of Transformation of Measurement Transducer in Measuring Structure in Measuring Channel During Dynamic Measurement


An original approach considering a measurement technique for experimental investigations of accelerometers or accelerometer measuring structures formed by experimenters is described in this paper. The analytical approach of information processing minimizing a metering dynamic error is offered ...


George A. Abramchuk, Kristina Abramchuk

Toronto, Canada

E-mail: george.abramchuk@sympatico.ca






Subminiature SMT Piezoresistive Accelerometers


Endevco has announced the introduction of a new model 71 series subminiature, surface-mount accelerometer with resonant frequencies from 180kHz to 700kHz and zero damping for shock measurements from 6,000 to 60,000g in highly demanding applications and sensitivities from 3 to 30 uV/g.


With a frequency response extending down to dc, these transducers are ideal for measurement of long duration transients. And they permit integration of the acceleration data to obtain velocity and displacement measurements ...


Yeni Hoo

Senior Marketing Communications Specialist,


Tel.: 949.493.8181

E-mail: yeni.hoo@endevco.com

SMT Accelerometer



High Sensitivity Acoustic Pressure Sensors for Automotive and Aerospace Testing Applications


August 2, 2006, Depew, NY, USA Series 103B ICP Acoustic Pressure Sensors from the Pressure Division of PCB Piezotronics, Inc. measure pulsating, transient, and turbulent acoustic phenomena on transportation vehicles and other structures.  These low-profile, high-sensitivity sensors are ideal for applications such as automotive and aerospace wind tunnel testing, aerodynamic testing and analysis, aircraft cabin and cockpit noise testing, and acoustic fatigue testing on airframes.


ICP style sensors feature built-in signal conditioning microelectronics to produce clean, low-impedance voltage output signals, and are offered in three configurations; pigtail wire solder connection, 10-32 top connector, and 3-56 side connector.  Each configuration is available in sensitivities of 500 or 1,500 mV/psi (72.5 or 217.5 mV/kPa) and ranges of 10 or 3.33 psi (68.95 or 22.96 kPa).  Rise time is less than 25 ms. Discharge time constant allows the sensors to follow transient events up to several hundred milliseconds in duration ...


Dan Cummiskey

Division Manager

Pressure Division, PCB Piezotronics, Inc.

3425 Walden Avenue, Depew, NY  14043-2495 USA

Tel.: (716) 684-0002 ext. 2613, fax: (716) 686-9129

E-mail: dcummiskey@pcb.com

Acoustic pressure sensors



Robust Intrinsically Safe Linear Position Sensor


Penn Valley, PA, August 3, 2006 - Everight Precision Technologies Corporation, the North American distributor for British sensor manufacturer Positek, Ltd., introduces Positeks X line of intrinsically safe linear variable inductive transducer position sensors for use in oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation, heavy equipment, and factory automation applications.  ATEX certified to EEX ia IIC TA standards (TA = -40 to +80 C), equivalent to US Class 1, Div 1, Groups B, C, D, Positeks intrinsically safe position sensors comprise the broadest range of macro position sensor forms available in the market today ...


Les Schaevitz,

Everight Precision Technologies Corp., USA


E-mail: lps@everightsensors.com


Linear position sensor X111



New High Sensitivity, DC Response Accelerometer for Automotive and Off-Highway Testing


August 7, 2006, Depew, NY, USA - The Vibration division of PCB Piezotronics (PCB) has announced new Model 3711, a high sensitivity, MEMS DC (steady state) response accelerometer designed expressly for automotive and off-highway testing.


PCB's Model 3711 is gas damped, and provides micro g resolution and 10,000 g shock survivability. Several full-scale acceleration ranges are available, from 3 to 200 g, with a frequency response from DC to 1,500 Hz ( 5%). The sensor's footprint is 0.85 in. (21.6 mm) x 0.85 in. (21.6 mm) x 0.45 in. (11.4 mm) in a welded titanium case design, with a choice of either hermetic connector or integral cable version.


The accelerometer is well-suited for applications such as brake deceleration compliance certification; durability testing of vehicle radiators and air coolers; roll stiffness/static rollover threshold tests; vehicle/component test chamber instrumentation; and NVH and multi-axis motion test platforms. Any vibration sensing application requiring DC acceleration, high resolution, and high sensitivity, yet able to survive high g events, will benefit from this new accelerometer ...


Craig Aszkler,

Vibration Division Manager,

PCB Piezotronics, Inc.,

3425 Walden Avenue, Depew, NY 14043-2495,

Tel.: (888) 684-0013 ext. 2368, fax: (716) 685-3886

E-mail: caszkler@pcb.com

Accelerometer 3711



Steel Mill Pressure Sensor Operates in Rugged Environs of Steel and Aluminum Industry


Mount Olive, NJ - American Sensor Technologies has introduced the new AST47SM Series Pressure Sensors designed to perform in the rugged environments of the steel and aluminum industry. The AST47SM sensors are a direct plug-in for steel mill applications including rolling mills, pumps as well as coolant systems.


Featuring a one-piece sensing element, the AST47SM Series of Pressure Sensors have no silicone oil, welds or O-rings, eliminating the chance of contamination from outside media. A stainless steel housing welded to the sensing element and cable connection withstands system wash downs. The pressure sensors also feature a stress-reduced diaphragm that withstands high-pressure spikes while a special internal restrictor maintains a high frequency response of ~ 1kHz. Units also possess high proof and burst pressure ratings ...


Karmjit Sidhu,

American Sensor Technologies,

Tel.: 973-448-1901

E-mail: ksiddhu@astsensors.com


Pressure sensor AST47SM



Accelerometer Calibration Workstation Fits Every Need


Cincinnati, OH The Modal Shop, Inc., a PCB Group Co., covers the complete range of accelerometer calibration needs with its workhorse Model 9155C Accelerometer Calibration Workstation.  ICP, charge, shock, piezoresistive, capacitive, velocity, high-frequency and low-frequency vibration sensors can all be calibrated for sensitivity and phase, verified for linearity or resonance checked with the multitude of options available for the system. Calibrations are performed using the 'back-to-back' method according to ISO 16063-21. Customizable data reports are generated within Microsoft Excel that conform to the requirements of ISO 17025 for calibration certificates aiding customers who require A2LA certification ...


Scott Sorensen,

The Modal Shop, Inc.

3149 E. Kemper Rd.

Cincinnati, OH 45241

Tel.: (513) 351-9919, fax (513) 458-2172

E-mail: ssorensen@modalshop.com

Accelerometer calibration workstation



The 5300 Series Wet/Wet Differential Pressure Sensors


Irvine, CA, USA Sensor System Solutions, Inc., a manufacturer of (MEMS) sensors, intelligent sensor interface electronics and intelligent embedded control systems, has announced its improved Wet/Wet Differential Pressure Sensor Model 5300 which is targeted to the HVAC, Water Management, Process Control System, Hydraulic System, Filtration, Refrigeration, Compressor, Ocean Vessel and Aerospace markets.


The unit is available in five standard pressure range configurations (5, 15, 30, 100 and 300 psid) as well as available for OEM customizations. It features a standard 4-20 mA amplified output and has both Unamplified mV and Amplified 1-5 V outputs as available options.


In addition, the unit is equipped with a ј-18 NPTM Port or can be optionally outfitted with a ј-27 NPTF Port. Other configurations are available based upon custom quotations ...


Roger Sullivan

VP Sales & Marketing

Tel.: (949) 855-6688 ext. 118

E-mail: sales1@corp3s.com

Pressure sensors 5300



Humidity and Temperature Hand-Held HUMIPORT 05


The new HUMIPORT 05 from E+E Elektronik provides the mobile precise measurement of relative humidity and temperature in the ranges of 595% RH and -2050C (-4122F). Furthermore dew point, absolute humidity and mixing ratio can be shown on the very well readable display.

In spite of the compact dimensions of a mobile phone the HUMIPORT 05 offers easy handling with the proven thumb-wheel switch. That makes sure that the whole operation of the hand-held can be performed with only one hand.


The measured values can be displayed as SI- or as US-units. Moreover the HUMIPORT 05 provides helpful features like MIN / MAX and AVG indication as well as a HOLD-function. The possibility of a 1-point humidity and temperature calibration ensures precise measurements in the long run.


Typical applications for the HUMIPORT 05 are for example the mobile climate monitoring of buildings, switching cabinets, museums and storehouses. That ruggedly designed hand-held can be additionally protected by a handy protective bag with a belt loop ...


Werner Hentscholek

Marketing Manager ,

E+E Elektronik Ges.m.b.H.

Langwiesen 7, A-4209 Engerwitzdorf, Austria

Tel.: +43 (0)7235 605-328, fax: +43 (0)7235 605-8

E-mail: hentscholek.w@epluse.at




Reverse Polarity-Protected Quadrature Encoder with Fast Interpolation


The new encoder device iC-MG is a fast sine-to-digital converter which translates optical or magnetic sine/cosine sensor signals into encoder quadrature signals. Programmable up to a factor of 50, this real-time interpolator supplements signal conditioning at both the input and output ends of the component, making it a world premiere in this respect. A sensor regulator stabilizes the input signals to be interpolated; integrated, differential RS422 output drivers make the chip line compatible and error tolerant. Short circuits or a falsely connected supply voltage do not destroy the device.


Programmable instrumentation amplifiers with a selectable resolution and offset and phase correction can be adjusted separately for each channel; these allow differential or referenced input signals. At the same time the inputs can either be set to high impedance for voltage signals from magneto resistor sensor bridges, for example, or to low impedance for adaptation and use with photosensors which provide current signals, for instance. This enables the device to be directly connected up to a number of different optical and magnetic sensors ...


Joachim Quasdorf

iC-Haus GmbH, Am Kuemmerling 18,

D-55294 Bodenheim

Tel: +49 - (0)6135 - 9292-300, fax: +49 - (0)6135 - 9292-192

E-mail: sales@ichaus.com

Quadrature encoder


0-40MHz Self-Clocking ADCs Deliver 105 dB Dynamic Range with Integrated PGA


Xignal Technologies invites to preview the XT11201 (12-bit) and XT11401 (14-bit) ADCs. The devices feature on-chip programmable gain amplifiers and deliver 105dB usable dynamic range with only 75mW power consumption. Static and dynamic modes of PGA operation, dynamic mode enabled by on-chip gain step timer and memory. No differential buffer amplifier needed, supports operation from both differential and single-ended signal sources.


These products are sampling now and evaluation kits will be made available by the end of August 2006 ...


Xignal Technologies AG

Leipziger Strasse 16

Unterhaching 82008, Germany

Tel.: +49 (0) 89 32 22 72-0, fax: +49 (0) 89 32 22 72-14

E-mail: info@xignal.de

ADC XT11201





End Users to Benefit from Wireless Standards Committee Work


Research Triangle Park, NC -10 August 2006 - Over twenty companies from around the world have responded to the call for proposals from ISA's Wireless Systems for Automation standards committee. The committee is holding a preliminary proposal review meeting on 11-15 September 2006 at ISA in RTP, NC.


The ISA-SP100 committee is establishing standards, recommended practices, technical reports, and related information that will define procedures for implementing wireless systems in the automation and control environment with a focus on the field level. Guidance is directed towards those responsible for the complete life cycle including the designing, implementing, on-going maintenance, scalability or managing manufacturing and control systems, and will apply to users, system integrators, practitioners, and control systems manufacturers and vendors ...


Jennifer Infantino,

ISA, 67 Alexander Drive, 

Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

Tel.: (919) 990-9287

E-mail: jinfantino@isa.org





Multisensor Data and Information Processing

(Special Issue, August 2005)


S&T Special Issue's cover





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