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Vol. 74, No. 12, December 2006




Table of Contents




Monitoring of High Pressure with Fiber Optic Sensor


Abstract: Paper reports intensity modulated pressure sensor using microbending in the optical fiber embedded in the structural material. Pressure induced microbends have been created in silica clad graded index multimode optical fiber 50mm, plastic clad PCS200 and plastic clad PCS600 optical fibers embedded in the sample of araldite matrix. The samples have been tested separately with random microbending and periodic microbending of spatial periodicity Λ=5mm under high pressure cyclic loading conditions. The maximum pressure measured with PCS600 is 3.0 MPa, with PCS200 the maximum pressure measured is 1.8 MPa and that with silica clad 50mm maximum pressure measured is 1.6 MPa. The results with PCS600 optical fiber have been found to be linear and most reliable.


Pandey N.K., Yadav B.C., Tripathi Anupam

Sensors and Materials Research Laboratory,

University of Lucknow, U.P. India



Experimental Validation of Fluorescence Intensity Ratio/Fluorescence Lifetime Temperature Sensing Technique


Abstract: Both the temperature sensing scheme FIR and FL has been compared on the basis of the experimentally observed data from Eu3+ doped calibo glass having the energy level separation (∆E~1725cm-1) between the two 5D1 and 5D0 levels. On the basis of the error estimations and the sensitivity values as observed it is concluded that the FIR technique would be the better one to monitor the temperature over a wide range 298-550K temperature compared to the FL technique.


Vineet Kumar Rai and S. B. Rai

Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory

Department of Physics,

Banaras Hindu University, India



Sensors and Methods for Electromagnetic Pulse Identification


Abstract: There are some suitable methods for the measurement of ultra-short solitary electromagnetic pulses that can be generated by high power pulsed generators. The measurement methods properties have to correspond to the fact whether we want to measure pulses of voltage, current or free-space electromagnetic wave. The need for specific measurement methods occurred by the development of high power microwave pulse generator. Applicable methods are presented in this paper. The method utilizing Faraday’s induction law allows the measurement of generated current. For the same purpose the magneto-optic method can be utilized, with its advantages. For measurement of output microwave pulse of the generator the calorimetric method was designed and realized.



Department of Theoretical and Experimental Electrical Engineering

Brno University of Technology

Brno, Czech Republic



Characterization Technique of an Excited Solid-State Piezoelectric Transformer as a Function of Transient Time


Abstract: A technique describing voltage transformation of a transiently oscillating Piezoelectric Transformer (PT) has been reported. The first part is dealing with determination of input and output voltage of PT at resonance using Pico scope; a computer based oscilloscope. It was found that, as time goes, the output voltage of the PT fluctuated due to frequency aging; therefore a second part of experimental set-up was needed to record transformation ratio as a function of transient time. To do that, Computer 2 was connected to DMM1 and DMM2, for the purpose of measuring the voltage transformation, in additional to that, Lab view program was installed in Computer 2 and used to calculate voltage ratio as a function of transient time. In this technique, caution was taken when interpreting results from resonance (110.50 kHz) relative to PT operating in frequency (kHz) range between (109 Í 110.50 Í 114) as a function of transient time.


Selemani SEIF

Department of Physics,

Alabama A & M University, USA



Methanol Sensing Behavior of Strontium(II) Added MgAl2O4 Composites Through Solid-State Electrical Conductivity Measurements


Abstract: Strontium(II) added MgAl2O4 composites prepared by sol – gel technique was utilized for the detection of methanol vapors. XRD, SEM and BET surface area measurements were employed to identify the structural phases and surface morphology. The composites were prepared with the molar ratios of Mg: Sr as (1.0: 0.0, 0.8:0.2, 0.6:0.4, 0.4:0.6, 0.2:0.8, 0.0:1.0) keeping the aluminium molar ratio as constant for all the compositions and were labeled as MgSA1, MgSA2, MgSA3, MgSA4, MgSA5 and MgSA6 respectively. The samples sintered at 900oC for 5 h were subjected to dc resistance measurements in the temperature range of 30-200oC to study the methanol vapor detection characteristics. The results revealed that the sensitivity in detecting methanol vapor increased with increase in temperature up to 150 oC and thereafter decreased. The sensitivity increased with methanol concentration from 100-5000 ppm at 150oC. Among the different compositions of the composites MgSA5 showed the best sensitivity to methanol detection at an operating temperature of 150oC.



1Department of Chemistry, Loyola Institute of Frontier Energy (LIFE), Loyola College, India

2Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India



Surface Activated ZnO Thick Film Resistors for LPG Gas Sensing


Abstract: The CuO-modified films obtained by dipping pure ZnO thick films into an aqueous solution of copper chloride for different intervals of time and fired at 5000C for 24 h. The copper chloride would transform into copper oxide upon firing. CuO-modified (0.4092 mass % CuO) ZnO thick films resulted in LPG gas detector. Upon exposure to 1000 ppm LPG gas, the barrier height between CuO-ZnO grains decreases markedly leading to a drastic decrease in resistance. An exceptional sensitivity was found to LPG gas at 4000C and no cross sensitivity was observed to other hazardous and polluting gases. The instant response (~ 5 sec) and fast recovery (~ 10 sec) are the main features of this sensor. The effects of microstructure and surfactant concentration on the gas response, selectivity, response time and recovery time of the sensor in the presence of LPG gas were studied and discussed.



Materials Research Lab, Pratap College, India





Submersible Pressure Sensors for Level Sensing Needs


Mt. Olive, NJ - November 30, 2006 - American Sensor Technologies, Inc. (AST) introduces a new line of Media Isolated Submersible Pressure Sensors - the Models AST4500 and AST4510. These units are intended for use in intrinsically safe IS areas when used with an approved entity barrier.


Both the AST4500 and AST4510 are extremely versatile and suitable in a variety of different submersible and level measurement applications including: ground water level depth measurement, well water monitoring, earthen and concrete dams, liquid level tanks, gasoline and diesel fuel tanks, irrigation, salt water holding tanks and waste water canals.


Both models operate at a wide temperature range -20 to 85*C (4 to 185*F) and offer pressure ranges up to 100 PSI. More specifically, the AST4500 series provides pressure ranges from 0-20 to 0-100 PSIG and an 0.88 inch diameter. For the AST4510 series, 0-5, 0-7.5, 0-10 and 0-15 PSIG are the ranges offered with a one inch diameter. Output options include: 1-5 V, and 4-20 mA ...


Karmjit Siddhu

American Sensor Technologies, Inc.

450 Clark Drive, Mt. Olive, NJ 07828, USA

Tel.: 973-448-1901, fax: (973) 448-1905

E-mail: ksiddhu@astsensors.com

Submersible pressure sensor



15 mm Rotary Sensor for Demanding Applications


Targeted for Powertrain and other Critical applications, the Z-15 has been specifically designed to be integrated within the existing final application (throttle body, air-intake valve) to avoid the duplication of costs associated with the standard “bolt-on” alternatives that prevail in the marketplace. Moreover, because of the cost effectiveness of the Z-15 solution, TRUE redundancy can be achieved employing two or more ganged Z-15’s.


Main product specifications: Mechanical Life: 2M cycles, Op. Temp. Range: -40*C to +120*C. Electrical Angle: 90 * ...


Antonio Beasain Aranda



Telf. +34 948 82 04 50, fax. +34 948 82 40 50


Z-15 rotary sensor



Bottle Filling Made Easier with Accurate, Reliable MTS Level Sensors


MTS Systems Corp., Sensors Division's M-Series sensors are currently being used to monitor liquid level in filler bowls-holding tanks that are used for gravity feed flow control for the dispensing of liquids into bottles or containers. Combining the unparalleled accuracy and reliability of MTS magnetostrictive sensors with Temposonics® technology and a sanitary pipe assembly with a tri-clamp flange that have been certified as 3-A compliant, the M-Series is the ideal sensor for bottle filling processes. The foam generated during the filling process will not affect the accuracy of the level measurement due to the fact that the float will rest on the liquid and not the foam. Other effects from the harsh environment inside the filling bowl, such as vapor and spray, will also not effect the level accuracy because the sensing element is enclosed in the sanitary pipe and does not come in direct contact with the liquid ...


Adrian Totten,

MTS Systems Corp.

Level Products Marketing Manager

3001 Sheldon Drive, Cary, NC 27513

Tel.: 919-677-0100

E-mail: adrian.totten@mts.com


M-Series sensors



HVAC Remote Sensor System


Santa Barbara, Calif., Dec. 1, 2006 – Visit Accsense at AHR EXPO, booth 42086 and see how remote physical sensors can rapidly and wirelessly process heating and cooling data - effectively meet ASHRAE standards, track air-flow data, keep accurate temperatures, monitor humidity and more. Accsense’s out-of-the-box solution is up and running in five minutes, allowing users to start recording data and receiving information immediately.


A complete Accsense wireless system automatically forms a secure, self-healing wireless mesh network with a range as long as 4000 ft. Accsense sensor Pods are compatible with a range of standard external plug-in sensors and probes, including thermocouples, resistance-temperature detectors, and thermistors ...


Jacqui Higgins

Accsense, Inc.

Tel.: 805-681-3500

E-mail: jacqui.higgins@accsense.com



Liquid Level Control Relays and Electrodes


Sensing and instrumentation specialist Vydas International has announced a wide range of liquid level control relays designed to detect and control the level of electrically conductive liquids in tanks, wells and containers. Manufactured by Lovato Electric, this is a simple and cost effective solution to level detection and start-up priority change control. Designed with modular, plug-in or watertight housing, the product range provides up to 4 different points of level detection.


Conductive level switches detect the change in the electrical resistance between a reference electrode (or an electrically conductive vessel) when their electrodes come into contact with the liquid medium. Various sensor electrodes and holders are available either complete or with separate sensing rods. Features include adjustable 2-200 K sensitivity, time delay for probe signal, start up priority change relays, single and multipoint detection systems, LED indication of power and output signal, wide selection of electrodes; electrode holders. Typical power supply requirement are 24, 110-127, 220-240, 380-415 Vac ...


Cliff Wyatt,


Tel.: 44 (0)1428 751822

E-mail: cliff@vydas.co.uk


Liquid level relays and electrodes



On-Chip Diagnostic Technology for Automotive Sensors


Dresden, Germany - ZMD AG introduced the ZMD31150 high-speed automotive signal conditioner IC with advanced on-chip diagnostics for use with all types of wheatstone bridge sensors. The ZMD31150 is designed for all sensing applications in automotive environments, such as fuel injection, ABS, power steering, air induction, fuel tank, air conditioning and occupant classification.


The ZMD31150 provides highly accurate amplification and sensor-specific digital correction of bridge sensor signals. An analog pre-amp gain of 420 accommodates bridge outputs as low as 1mV/V and an extended sensor offset. A fast 16-bit ADC with an integrating input characteristic gives a 7.8 KHz sample rate, so the whole system delivers a comparable analog bandwidth of 4 KHz. Accuracy and flexibility is further enhanced by selectable internal or external temperature sensors. This allows more precise temperature compensation of sensor readings ...


Anja Maria Hastenrath

Zugspitzstr. 10,

81541 Munich, Germany

Tel.: +49 89 69 76 06 10, fax +49 89 69 76 06 13

E-mail: ah@embedded-pr.de



Smart 'through-wall' Radar Sensing Device


Cambridge Consultants launches prism 200, a compact 'through-wall' radar sensing device which gives security forces a means of reducing the enormous risks involved in tactical entry, and siege or hostage situations.


The product, which is the size of a briefcase and can be carried and used with one hand, employs sophisticated software to evaluate the position and movement of people in rooms and buildings. The product is highly valuable in a number of situations where it would be otherwise impossible to gain such intelligence. Capable of working to distances of up to 20 metres, it provides users such as police and special forces with answers to two key questions which guide their choice of tactics: "Is anyone behind this wall?", and, "What is the pattern of activity inside this building?"


Prism 200 incorporates three advances that make through-wall radar technology a highly practical proposition for security personnel: a radar device that is battery-powered and highly portable; smart radar signal processing that senses human movement and position - even in difficult environments with lots of reflecting surfaces; and meaningful data presentation in forms to suit the user, including plan, elevation or 3D views ...


Neil Cooper

Cambridge Consultants

Tel: +44 (0)1223 420024

E-mail: Neil.Cooper@CambridgeConsultants.com

prism 2000 screen



Double Torque SmartMotor


Santa Clara, California - Animatics Corporation, designers and manufacturers of highly innovative motion control products, announces the latest release in their OEM Series of SmartMotors, the new SM2315DT. The SM2315DT features an innovated new 8-pole compact rotor design with higher copper filling factor compared to conventional techniques and the new design achieves a higher energy density as well as better efficiency that results in more torque capacity in the same physical package size. "Animatics can generate two times (2X) more continuous torque than the World's best selling integrated servo system, our very own SM2315D," says Hack Summer, Senior Application Engineer for Animatics. The OEM Series SmartMotorT is a complete motion control system that is known for being compact, user friendly, and cost effective. Using a patented design, SmartMotors incorporate a Servo Motor, Amplifier, and Motion Controller into the same integral frame ...


Nathan Turner

Animatics Corporation

3050 Tasman Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054

Tel: 408.310.3434

Fax: 408-748-8725

E-mail: nturner@animatics.com




Impulse Sound Level Meter for Firing Range Noise


Depew, NY, USA - The Soundtrack LxT® from Larson Davis, is ideal for measuring the extremely high peak sound pressure levels generated by gunfire. While many sound level meters cannot consistently measure above 140 dB, the Soundtrack LxT®, with optional ј inch microphone, accurately measures peak levels exceeding 170 dB.


Units feature a high performance peak detector circuit with extremely fast 'rise time' response to short duration impulse events, such as those generated on a firing range. The instrument is housed in a rugged case, and has a high contrast LCD display, viewable in all conditions, including direct sunlight. Controls are simple and clearly marked, and the lightweight unit may be operated with one hand.


Soundtrack LxT® offers an innovative approach to sound measurement for compliance and worker noise exposure monitoring. Available in Type 1 or Type 2 versions, the Soundtrack LxT® provides an easy way to manage route or task-based workplace noise surveys. With operator route prompts and digital voice annotation, surveys are done quickly and easily by operators at all skill levels. Optional integrated real-time 1/1 and 1/3. Octave filter performs frequency band analysis instantly without tedious 'step-through'. Units are backed by a two-year warranty and PCB®'s Total Customer Satisfaction guarantee ...


Rob Brauch,

Larson Davis, Inc.

3425 Walden Avenue

Depew, NY 14043 USA

Tel.: (888) 258-3222

Fax: (716) 926-8215

E-mail: rbrauch@pcb.com

Sound Level Meter





Standardized CANopen/AS-Interface Gateway


Erlangen, 21 November 2006. CAN in Automation (CiA) has released the CiA 446 specification. It describes the standardized CANopen/AS-Interface gateway. The gateway provides NMT slave functionality on the CANopen side; NMT master functionality may be implemented additionally. On the AS-Interface side up to two AS-Interface masters may be connected per logical device. Theoretically, up to eight logical devices may be implemented in a single CANopen device. The gateway specification supports M0 to M4 AS-Interface master functions. In the document 132 Transmit-PDOs and 132 Receive-PDOs are described to communicate digital and analog input/output signals from the two AS-Interface sub-systems. All AS-Interface parameters may be configured by means of SDO write services to the CANopen object dictionary of the gateway. By means of SDO read services it is possible to get the status of any AS-Interface slave device ...


Monika Mack,

PR Manager

CAN in Automation,






Multisensor Data and Information Processing

(Special Issue, August 2005)


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