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Sensors & Transducers Journal 2006





Vol. 77, No. 3, March 2007




Table of Contents

Journal's CD ROM 2006





System Verification


Abstract: This article discusses the importance of sensor accuracy and system verification in various industries. It also proposes a solution to minimizing the damage an overloaded sensor may cause to an assembly line ...


Javad Mokhbery

FUTEK Advanced Sensor Technology, Inc.

10 Thomas Irvine, CA 92618, USA



High Temperature Humidity Sensor for Detection of Leak Through Slits and Cracks in Pressurized Nuclear Power Reactor Pipes


Abstract: The leak before break (LBB) concept is well known to nuclear power reactor. The problem is common to water power reactor. This is based on the premise that a detectable leak will develop before catastrophic break occurs. The main purpose of the present study is to develop tape cast MgCr2O4+35mole% TiO2 and gel cast g-Al2O3 humidity sensor for use in LBB applications at 3000C. The material capacitance varies with transient injection of water vapour adsorption. In actual plant, the sensors are placed on a steam pipe surrounded by heat insulation. The pipe unites the nuclear reactor and power generator. The analysis of humidity distribution in the annulus is calculated assuring leak rate 0.1gpm in a 30 m long tube. In this paper, analysis is done on the basis of the two types of sensor using AC frequency. Performance characteristics are observed for the LLB application ...


Debdulal Saha, Kamalendu Sengupta

Sensors and Actuators Section, Central Glass & Ceramic Research

Institute, 196 Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, India



Mathematical Formulation for Strain and Pressure Mapping Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors


Abstract: In this paper, we report theoretical investigation of fiber Bragg strain and pressure mapping sensor with a novel mathematical formulation. A second order differential equation has been established showing relation between spatial periodicity along length of the fiber and effective refractive index of fiber core. Solution of this equation shows that magnitude of strain or pressure may be predicted from central wavelength shift of Bragg wavelength in the returned Bragg signal ...


Pandey N. K., Tripathi Anupam

Sensors and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics,

University of Lucknow, U.P., Pin-226007, India



Lifetime Based Temperature Sensing


Abstract: The most promising lifetime based temperature sensing technique involving measurements of Fluorescence Lifetime has been reviewed. The experimental measurements for Eu3+ doped tellurite glass are found to be compatible with the theoretical requirements having a specific energy gap between the two close lying energy levels ...


Nirupama Rai, Vineet Kumar Rai

Departmento de Física, Universidade Frderal de Pernambuco

50670-901 Recife, PE Brasil



A New Concept of Theory and Technique for Remote Strain Measurement


Abstract: A new concept of theory and technique for Remote strain measurement with proper ambient temperature compensation has been presented here. This presented theory and technique not only produces dc output voltage, which is linearly proportional to the change in gauge resistance, but also it suppresses essentially all lead wire resistance effects with a shielded twisted pair cable ...

Tapan Kumar MAITI1, Asim KAR2

1Transducers and Sensors Laboratory, College of Engineering & Management,

Kolaghat KTPP Township, Midnapore – 721 171, West Bengal, India

2Department of E.T.C.E, Jadavpur University, Kolkata – 700 032, West Bengal, India



Using RF Smart Points for the Improvement of Metrological Activities


Abstract: This work describes the realization of a “radio-frequency identification system” for the improvement of the activities of a metrological laboratory. Some radio-frequency modules, called by the authors RF Smart Points (“radio-frequency smart points”), have been designed to store into their memories all data which are necessary for the instruments tracking (the type of instruments, their identification numbers or serial numbers, the manufacturer, the date when they have been admitted to the installed base of the laboratory, their working state, the elapsed time from the last calibration procedure). The insertion of the data and the inquiry of the instruments are executed by the technical staff of the laboratory through a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) or a PC, which manage the radio-frequency communication by using the RS 232 interface for sending messages to a RF Transceiver. The executable software for managing the communication between the Smart Points and the “PDA/PC-Controllers” is realized in LabVIEW graphical programming environment ...


Claudio de Capua, Emilia Romeo, Antonino Battaglia, Bruno Piccolo

Department of Computer Science and Electrical Technology, University “Mediterranea”

Reggio Calabria, Italy



Data Acquisition and Digital Filtering for Infrasonic Records on Active Volcanoes


Abstract: This paper presents the design of a digital data acquisition system for volcanic infrasound records. The system includes four electret condenser element microphones, a QF4A512 programmable signal converter from Quickfilter Technologies and a MSP430 microcontroller from Texas Instruments. The signal output of every microphone is converted to digital via a 16-bit Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). To prevent errors in the conversion process, Anti-Aliasing Filters are employed prior to the ADC. Digital filtering is performed after the ADC using a Digital Signal Processor, which is implemented on the QF4A512. The four digital signals are summed to get only one signal. Data storing and digital wireless data transmission will be described in a future paper ...


José Chilo1,2, Thomas Lindblad1

1Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden

2University of Gävle, S-801 76 Gävle, Sweden



Real-Time Air Pollution Monitoring in Urban Environment Using In-Situ Measurements Using WO3 Gas Sensors and Satellite Imagery Through Internet GIS


Abstract: Air pollution is a serious problem in densely populated and industrialized areas in some Asian countries. The area investigated for this study is Bangkok, Thailand. The air pollution in central Bangkok is significant in areas with high population density. To monitor air pollution over a large area, this research aims at developing a cost-effective and real-time air pollution monitoring system that utilizes numerical modeling in conjunction with inexpensive, state-of-the-art gas sensors, remote sensing methodologies, and Internet GIS. Conventional pollution detectors, installed by the Bangkok Pollution Control Department, as well as WO3 sensors are employed for in-situ pollution measurements. The data obtained from the satellites sensors and measurements conducted on ground are used for numerical modeling by “Multiple Regressions” to investigate air pollutants distribution. The analysis and correlation of the air pollutants data are transferred to a Personal Digital Assistant linked via Bluetooth communication tools and Global Positioning System for rapid and simultaneous dissemination of information on pollution levels at multiple sites ...


O. Pummakarnchana1, V. Phonekeo2, A. Vaseashta3

1Department of Environmental Science, School of Science,

Silpakorn University, Nakornpathom, 70000, Thailand

2Geoinformatics Center, Asian Institute of Technology

Klongluang, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand

3Nanomaterials Processing and Characterization Laboratories

Graduate Program in Physical Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755, USA







Mini PiezoStar TEDS Accelerometer Provides High Resolution and Wide Dynamic Range


The Type 8715A5000M5 and TEDS version Type 8715A5000T are new IEPE PiezoStar Single Axis, Center Hole Accelerometers. The low mass low profile, hermetic accelerometer features a 5-44 side connector and integral ground isolation. The sensor construction utilizes shear cut PiezoStar crystals and high temperature internal microelectronics impedance converter to achieve industry leading temperature stability. The accelerometer provides high measurement resolution with over 100 dB of dynamic range ...


Kistler Instrumente AG

PO Box, CH-8408 Winterthur, Switzerland

Tel.: +41 52 - 224 11 11

Fax: +41 52 - 224 14 14

E-mail: public.relations@kistler.com


TEDS Acclerometer 8715A5000T



Digital Load Cell Display with "TEDS"


FUTEK’s popular IPM500 Panel Mount Signal Conditioner w/ Digital Display will now support sensors with "TEDS" ID recognition option per IEEE1451.4. "TEDS" (Transducer Electronic Data Sheet) option features an auto-configuration which minimizes error due to setup and re-installation. This product is widely used by system integrators and test engineers in laboratory, medical, automotive and aerospace instrumentations. In addition to providing a stable and well regulated excitation voltage to the sensor, it also provides 0-10 VDC & 4-20 mA analog output as well as RS232 / RS485 and USB interface to be used with PLC, data acquisition card or computer. FUTEK’s IPM500 display is the ideal solution for a complete sensor and instrumentation system ...


Sales Team

Futek Advanced Sensor Technology, Inc.

10 Thomas, Irvine,

CA 92618, USA

Tel.: (949) 465-0900

Fax: (949) 465-0905

E-mail: futek@futek.com


IPM500 Panel Mount Signal Conditioner



HVAC/R Pressure Sensors


American Sensor Technologies, Inc. (AST) offers a variety of HVAC/R pressure products for integration into HVAC and refrigeration equipment. These HVAC/R pressure sensors incorporate a one-piece, stainless steel construction that contains no internal seals or gaskets, eliminating the chance of permeation, system contamination and freezing in HVAC and refrigeration applications.  Sensors also feature a high cyclical life (>100 million full cycles), long-term stability and compound ranges with linear output through zero (i.e. -14.7 to 100PSI) ...


Karmjit S. Sidhu,

American Sensor Technologies, Inc.,

450 Clark Drive, Mt. Olive, NJ  07828

Tel: 973-448-1901

Fax: (973) 448-1905

E-mail: kssidhu@astsensors.com


HVAC/R Pressure Sensors



Miniature Quartz Force Sensor Measures Pressure on Injection Molding Cavities

and Other Short-Term Quasi-Static Processes


March 8, 2007, Depew, NY, USA – PCB Piezotronics (PCB®) has introduced Model 219A05 miniature charge output quartz force sensor, designed for industrial applications where space at a premium.  The sensor is ideal for obtaining an indirect measurement of injection molding cavity pressure by positioning the sensor behind an ejector pin.  The high stiffness property of the sensor allows them to follow very fast transient events. They may also be used to measure short term, quasi-static processes.  The removable cable allows for a choice of lengths and terminating connector type, and facilitates easy field repair, in the event a cable is damaged.


Full scale measurement ranges up to 560 lb (2.5 kN), and compact size of 0.24 inch (6 mm) diameter x 0.24 inch (6 mm) height, allows the sensor to be used for other applications involving compression forces, such as push buttons, pin insertion on circuit boards, switches, and actuators ...


Ken Watkins

Force Product Manager


3425 Walden Avenue, Depew, New York 14043-2495 USA

Tel.: (716) 684-0002, ext. 2637

Fax: (716) 684-8877

E-mail: force@pcb.com

Model 219A05 quartz force sensor



New Magnetostrictive Transducers with Profibus Interface


Gefran has expanded its MK and IK range of magnetostrictive linear displacement transducers with new Profibus DP interface versions featuring parameter based GSD file set-up. With stroke lengths from 50 mm to 4000 mm, Gefrans new MK4-P (profile version) and IK2-P (rod version) are aimed at applications requiring integration in complex processing and automation systems, especially over long communication distances and where data transmission must be rapid and secure.


Based on contact-free technology, magnetostrictive sensors guarantee longer life thanks to the almost total absence of wear due to friction between moving parts. The durability of the technology suits some of the most arduous applications in hydraulics systems, servo drives and robotics. The cursor and the sensitive element can be completely separated, so that high-protection housings can be created for the sensor. In addition, because this is a highly advanced technology, it benefits from integrated control electronics to achieve extremely high precision (in the order of 1 μm) and facilitates the use of a wide range of interfaces. MK and IK linear displacement transducers are also available with analogue, digital, synchronous and CANopen interfaces ...


Eddie Palmer

Gefran SIEI UK Limited

7 Pearson Road

Central Park, Telford, TF2 9TX

Tel: 08452 604555, fax: 08452 677455

E-mail: sales@gefran.co.uk

MK4-P magnetostrictive transducers



Intelligent Dual-Channel LVDT Controllers and Indicators


Pennsauken, NJ, March 1, 2007. - Macro Sensors has designed the industry’s first line of intelligent micro processor based dual-channel digital controllers and indicators that can be used in a variety of industrial measurement and control applications within the petrochemical, power generation, laboratory and manufacturing industries.


Offering precise measurement for applications utilizing AC and DC operated LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) inputs, Macro Sensors Series DMC Dual Channel LVDT Controllers offer simplified sensor calibration and set-up with a scrolling display that actively guides users on what information to input. R&D, factory automation and other tech staff can easily program these controllers and indicators without engineering assistance.  The DMC Dual Channel Controllers also offers a GUI interface, enabling operators to quickly calibrate and set up sensors, retrieve or send programs and view and collect data remotely through a computer via RS-232 or Ethernet ...


Ed Herceg,

Macro Sensors

U.S. Route 130 North, Bldg. 22, Pennsauken, NJ  08110-1541

Tel.: 856-662-8000

Fax: 856-317-1005

E-mail: eeh@macrosensors.com

LVDT Controller



 Miniature, In-Line Charge Converters with TEDS


Depew, NY, USA - PCB Piezotronics, Inc. introduces a new series of miniature, in-line charge converters for use with charge output piezoelectric accelerometers, force and pressure sensors. Series 422E9x has been designed to address the need for lightweight charge converters, which consume a minimal amount of installation space. Units are powered by standard ICP(r) sensor signal conditioners.


Models 422E91, 422E92 and 422E93 offer standard conversion sensitivities, respectively, of: 0.1 mV/pC, 1.0 mV/pC, and 10 mV/pC, and frequencies from 1.5 Hz to 50 kHz. Units feature 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) diameter stainless steel housings, are 1.6 inches (40 mm) in length, and incorporate 10-32 coaxial input and output connectors. A TEDS option permits channel identification, sensitivity interrogation, and coordinate location information to be stored in an on-board memory circuit, recalled by simple command. These charge converters are ideal for use with charge output sensors engaged in structural testing requirements, aerospace component monitoring, and environmental simulation, where installation space is restricted and mass  loading is of concern ...


Craig Aszkler,

PCB Piezotronics, Inc.

3425 Walden Avenue, Depew, New York 14043-2495 USA

Tel.: (888) 684-0013, fax: (716) 685-3886

E-mail: caszkler@pcb.com

422E9x in-line charge converters



AMS Device Driver for M-Series Analog Sensor


MTS Systems Corp., Sensors Division has developed an Asset Management System (AMS) device driver for their model M-Series MR analog liquid-level sensor. The AMS driver allows easier access to internal data registers and provides unparalleled control of all devices on the network using advanced automation software.  The software enables the MR sensors to communicate directly with the control system by transforming the liquid-level data, as well as various other internal data registers, into a format that can be interpreted by the controller.


Asset management systems are designed to collect data from the MR sensor, organize the data for various maintenance functions, and monitor the health of the sensor so action can be taken before there is a serious breakdown in the system.  This results in reduced plant commission and loop maintenance costs, and decreased process downtime ...


Adrian Totten,

Product Marketing Manager

MTS Systems Corp.

Tel.: 919-677-2332

E-mail: adrian.totten@mts.com

Asset Management System



 DSLab Multichannel Data Acquisition System


The DSLab system includes transducers with compatible analog signals (mV differential, 5V, 10V, 4-20mA) that measure and transmit their analog signals to a mod. SAP digitizing electronics with up to 8pcs max. input channels (option up to 256 max. input channels).


Mod. SAP acquires the analog signals with high resolution (24 bit max. A/D converters), high sampling rate (up to 1 kHz max. allow to acquire slow and fast values) and digitally retransmits the acquired values by means of CAN Open bus net to the computer USB port where DSLab acquisition software is installed.


Typical applications: quality control on machines, research, automation, process control, weighing, tank leakage checking, medical applications, machine tools, civil engineering control of building and structures etc. ...


Dario Piardi

DS Europe S.r.L.

Italy – 20143 – Milano – Via F. Russoli 6

Tel.: 0039 02 8910142

Fax: 0039 02 89124848

E-mail: dseurope@seurope.com


DSLab Multichannel DAQ System



CE Mark Qualification for Sale of Series 4100 and 4200 Rotating Torque Transducers in Europe


March 8, 2007, Depew, New York, USA – PCB Piezotronics has announced that it has received CE qualifications for its Series 4100 and 4200 rotating torque transducers, in accordance with European Union EMC directives. Sensors use non-contact, rotary transformers for sending excitation voltage to, and receiving measurement signals from, the rotating strain gage sensor. The maintenance-free, rotary transformer design eliminates the need for replacing worn brushes, as is the case with conventional slip ring type rotating torque sensors.


The units are an ideal choice for use in engine and chassis dynamometers, fuel pumps, hydraulic pumps, drive shafts, transmissions, fans, and electric motors.  Specially designed units are available for aerospace hydraulic pumps and motor, with flanges and shafts conforming to AND 10262, 20002 specifications.


Series 4100 and 4200 rotating torque sensors offer capacities from 50 in-oz to 100,000 in-lb (0.35 to 11.3k N-m) full scale and maximum speeds to 15,000 rpm. In addition to the torque output signal, an optional pickup provides an output proportional to speed. The units feature high torsional stiffness and are available with keyed shaft, spline shaft, or flange ends ...


Ken Watkins

Force Product Manager

PCB Piezotronics

3425 Walden Avenue, Depew, New York 14043-2495 USA

Tel.: (716) 684-0002 ext. 2637

Fax: (716) 684-8877

E-mail: force@pcb.com

Rotating Torque Transducers








Multisensor Data and Information Processing

(Special Issue, August 2005)


S&T Special Issue's cover





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