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Vol. 207, Issue 12, December 2016, pp. 4-14




Novel Ultrasonic Instrumentation Developments for Real-time Monitoring of Binary Gas Mixtures
and Flow: Description and Applications

3 M. Battistin, 3 S. Berry, 3 P. Bonneau, 3 O. Crespo-Lopez, 4 C. Deterre, 6 M. Doubek, 3 G. Favre, 7 G. Hallewell, 8 S. Katunin, 3 D. Lombard, 4 A. O’Rourke, 4 A. Madsen, 9 S. McMahon, 10 K. Nagai, 1, * C. Rossi, 5 B. Pearson, 11 D. Robinson, 7 A. Rozanov, 12 E. Stanecka, 2 M. Strauss, 6 V. Vacek, 3 R. Vaglio, 2 J. Young

1 INFN Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova, Italy
2,5 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
3 CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
4 DESY, Notkestraße 85, Hamburg 22607, Germany
6 Czech Technical University, Technická 4, 166 07 Prague 6, Czech Republic
7 Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France
8 B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), 188300 St. Petersburg, Russia
9 Rutherford Appleton Lab, Science & Technology Facilities Council, Chilton, OX11OQX, UK
10 Department of Physics, Oxford University, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK
11 Department of Physics, Cambridge University, J. J.Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UK
12 Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krak?w, Poland
Tel.: +390103536236

* E-mail: cecilia.rossi@cern.ch


Received: 5 November 2016 /Accepted: 5 December 2016 /Published: 30 December 2016

Digital Sensors and Sensor Sysstems


Abstract: Custom ultrasonic instruments have been developed for continuous monitoring and real-time measurement of composition and flow in binary gas mixtures. These characteristics are derived from measurements of sound transit time along two opposite directions - parallel or tilted to the gas flow direction. The flow rate is then calculated from the transit time difference while the average is used to compute sound velocity by comparison with a sound velocity/composition database. Five devices are integrated in the Detector Control System of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Three instruments monitor C3F8 and CO2 coolant leaks into the nitrogen-purged envelopes of the inner silicon tracker; respectively with precisions better than ±2´10-5 and ±10-4. Two further instruments are used to monitor the new thermosiphon C3F8 evaporative coolant recirculator. One of these measures C3F8 vapour return flow to the condenser while the other tracks air ingress into the condenser with a precision better than 10-3. The precision of these instruments highlights their potential in other applications requiring continuous binary gas composition monitoring.


Keywords: Ultrasonic binary gas analysis, ATLAS Detector Control System, Sonar, thermosiphon, Evaporative cooling system.


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