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Vol. 231, Issue 3, March 2019, pp. 15-24




Modelling and Simulation of Various Kinds of Blockage in Carotid Artery
and Finding Their Pressure and Velocity Gradient Suitable for Measuring These Parameters Noninvasively
with the Help of External Pressure and Velocity Sensors

* Kshitij SHAKYA and Shubhajit ROY Chowdhury

School of Computing and Electrical Engineering IIT Mandi, Kamand-175005, Mandi, H. P., India
* Tel.: +91 1905 267110, fax: +91 1905 267009

E-mail: src@iitmandi.ac.in


Received: 30 January 2019 /Accepted: 5 March 2019 /Published: 29 March 2019

Digital Sensors and Sensor Sysstems


Abstract: This paper considers the blood flow in carotid artery and its adjoining internal and external carotid artery. It focuses on different shapes of obstructions developed in the artery due to plaque formation by fat and cholesterol deposit. The current research takes into consideration the specific areas of plaque formation and the overall consequence on pressure and velocity distribution accordingly throughout the artery. This simulation gives the pressure and velocity profiles at different points which may be measured non-invasively by MEMS pressure sensor and Doppler velocimeter externally. The study made in this paper is also useful in locating the probable area of blockage and the shape of blockage. The simulation also studies thickening of blood and the effect of external pressure application on the artery. The simulation has been carried out using Comsol Multiphysics 5.3 where a 3d model of carotid artery adjoining internal and external carotid artery along with blockages has been taken into consideration. This study assumes that the fluid is Newtonian, non- viscous and incompressible. Fluid flow is laminar and the arterial wall is elastic.


Keywords: COMSOL multiphysics; Blood vessel; Spherical, hemispherical and Gaussian shaped blockages; Carotid artery disease, Vascular resistance


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