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Vol. 27, Special Issue, May 2014, pp. 116-121




An Electronic Microtongue Based on a BDD Electrochemical Microcell for Qualitative Analysis of Domestic and Hospital Wastewaters

1, 2 Z. Haddi, 1 A. Sbartai, 1, 3 Ph. Namour, 1 A. Errachid, 4 N. El Bari, 2 B. Bouchikhi, 1 N. Jaffrezic-Renault

1 University of Lyon, Institute of Analytical Sciences, UMR 5280, Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
2 Sensor Electronic & Instrumentation Group, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Moulay Ismaïl University, B. P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco
3 Irstea, UR MALY, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
4 Biotechnology Agroalimentary and Biomedical Analysis Group, Department of Biology, Faculty of sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, B. P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco

E-mail: nicole.jaffrezic@univ-lyon1.fr


Received: 31 December 2012 /Accepted: 10 August 2013 /Published: 26 May 2014

Digital Sensors and Sensor Sysstems


Abstract: An electronic microtongue using an electrochemical microcell was designed to monitor wastewater quality. The planar electrochemical microcells were micromachined in a microcrystalline Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) thin layer using a femtosecond laser. The electrochemical measurements with these BDD microcells were conducted using Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) for the major detection of heavy metal ions. Global signal obtained for raw wastewater (influent of Waste water Treatment Plant (WWTP)) and for water from Arve river were found much higher than those of treated wastewater (effluent of WWTP) and of treated wastewater from hospital. The DPASV signals have been processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and K- Nearest Neighbours (K-NN). According to PCA results, waters were identified and discriminated with 99.75 % of the total variance of the dataset. Using K-NN with cross-validation approach, a good performance of the developed model was achieved for K=1 and 100 % of the samples were able to be classifiedin their original groups.


Keywords: Electronic microtongue, BDD electrode, DPASV, Pattern recognition methods, Wastewater analysis.


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