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Vol. 27, Special Issue, May 2014, pp. 190-197




A Hybrid System Based on an Electronic Nose Coupled with an Electronic Tongue
for the Characterization of Moroccan Waters

1, 2 Z. Haddi, 1 M. Bougrini, 1 K. Tahri, 3 Y. Braham, 4 M. Souiri, 5 N. El Bari, 3 A. Maaref, 4 A. Othmane, 2 N. Jaffrezic-Renault, 1, * B. Bouchikhi

1 Sensor Electronic & Instrumentation Group, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Moulay Isma?l University, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco
2 University of Lyon, Institute of Analytical Sciences, UMR 5280, Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
3 Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir 5000, Tunisia
4 Laboratoire de Biophysique, Faculté de Médecine de Monastir, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia
5 Biotechnology Agroalimentary and Biomedical Analysis Group, Department of Biology, Faculty of sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco

* E-mail: benachir.bouchikhi@gmail.com


Received: 22 November 2013 /Accepted: 24 January 2014 /Published: 26 May 2014

Digital Sensors and Sensor Sysstems


Abstract: A hybrid multisensor system combined with multivariate analysis was applied to the characterization of different kinds of Moroccan waters. The proposed hybrid system based on an electronic nose coupled with an electronic tongue consisted of metal oxide semiconductors and potentiometric sensors respectively. Five Taguchi Gas Sensors were implemented in the electronic nose for the discrimination between mineral, natural, sparkling, river and tap waters. Afterwards, the electronic tongue, based on series of Ion-Selective-Electrodes was applied to the analysis of the same waters. Multisensor responses obtained from the waters were processed by two chemometrics: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). PCA results using electronic nose data depict all of the potable water samples in a separate group from the samples that were originated from river. Furthermore, PCA and LDA analysis on electronic tongue data permitted clear and rapid recognizing of the different waters due to the concentration changes of the chemical parameters from source to another.


Keywords: Electronic nose, Electronic tongue, Loading analysis, Multivariate analysis, Water characterization.


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