bullet Sensors and Measurement Techniques for Chemical Gas Lasers


  Title: Sensors and Measurement Techniques for Chemical Gas Lasers

  Authors: Mainuddin, Gaurav Singhal, A. L. Dawar

  Publisher: International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing, S. L.

  Formats: hardcover (print book) and printable pdf Acrobat (e-book), 210 pages

  Price: 95.00 EUR for e-book and 115.00 EUR (shipping cost by a standard mail are included) for print book in hardcover.

  Delivery time for print book: 7-17 days dependent on country of destination. Please contact us for priority (5-9 days), ground (3-8 days) and express (2-3 days) delivery options by e-mail

  Pubdate: 11 July 2014

  ISBN: 978-84-617-1152-9

  e-ISBN: 978-84-617-1865-8



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 Book Description


Sensing and Measurement is the key technology area in the development of these lasers. Advanced sensing and measurement technologies are required to acquire, analyze and transform data into information that is useful to enhance the performance and capabilities of these lasers systems.


Beginning with a brief introduction to the basic concepts of sensors and transducers, classification of various sensors, the monograph discusses characteristics of various sensors, sensor signals, signal conditioning and their operations in chemical lasers scenarios. The emphasis is laid more on applicable diagnostic techniques, data processing and hardware selection. Further, design methodology and implementation of customized data acquisition system required for gathering and analyzing information in real time regarding various critical parameters vital for optimal system performance has also been detailed.


The goal of this monograph is therefore to enable scientists and technologists working in rather complex area of chemical lasers to achieve the best technical performances. Till now such topics have been covered scantly in open literature and that too in the research papers only.







1. Overview of Chemical Lasers: Sensors and Measurement Needs
Historical Perspective

1.1 Hydrogen Fluoride/ Deuterium Fluoride Laser
1.2 Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser
1.3 CO2 Gas dynamic Laser
1.4 Sensors and Measurement Needs



2. Direct Sensors: Types and Selection

2.1 Sensor Fundamentals
2.1.1 General Classification
2.1.2 Transducer Characteristics
2.2 Temperature Sensors
2.2.1 Thermocouples
2.2.2 Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)
2.2.3 Thermistors
2.2.4 Integrated Circuits (ICs) Temperature Sensors
2.2.5 Infrared/Optical Pyrometers
2.3 Selection of Temperature Sensors
2.4 Pressure Sensors
2.4.1 Capacitance Sensors
2.4.2 Strain Gauge Sensors
2.4.3 Tenso-resistive Type (Piezoresistive Strain Gauge) Sensors
2.5 Selection of Pressure Sensors
2.6 Level Sensors
2.6.1 Hydrostatic (Differential) Pressure Based Liquid Level Sensor
2.6.2 RF Capacitance Liquid Level Sensors
2.6.3 Ultra Sonic and Sonic Liquid Level Sensors
2.7 Selection of Level Sensors
2.8 Flow Sensors
2.8.1 Positive Displacement Flow Meters
2.8.2 Velocity Flow Meters
2.8.3 Mass Flow Meters
2.8.4 Differential Flow Meters
2.9 Selection of Flow Sensors
2.10 Optical Sensors
2.10.1 Thermal Detectors Thermocouples / Thermopiles Pyroelectric Detectors Thermistors / Bolometers
2.10.2 Photon Detectors Silicon/Germanium Detectors Mct Detectors Indium Antimonide (InSb) Ternary Compounds Detectors Alternate Indium Antimonide Detectors Platinum Silicide (PtSi) Detectors
2.11 Selection of Optical Sensors



3. Diagnostic Techniques

3.1 Specie Concentration Measurement
3.1.1 Optical Emission Singlet Oxygen Yield Water Vapor Concentration
3.1.2 Optical Absorption Chlorine Utilization (Cl2) Concentration Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) Concentration Iodine (I2) Concentration
3.1.3 Diode Laser based Absorption Spectroscopy
3.1.4 Raman Spectroscopy
3.1.5 Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) for Trace Detection of Gases
3.2 Cavity Medium Characterization
3.2.1 Small Signal Gain (SSG) Measurement Probe Beam Method Voigt Profile Method
3.2.2 Mach Number Diagnostics Pitot Static Tube Method Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) Voigt Profile Method
3.2.3 Medium Homogeneity Gain Mapping Optical Interferometer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) / Planar-LIF (PLIF)
3.3 Laser Output Power and Pulse Shape Measurement
3.4 Selection of Diagnostic Techniques


4. Signal Conditioning

4.1 Signal Sources
4.1.1 Grounded Signal Sources
4.1.2 Floating Signal Sources
4.1.3 Single-ended Measurement
4.1.4 Differential-ended Measurement
4.2 Analog and Digital Signals
4.2.1 Operating Voltage and Output Signal Selection
4.3 Sensor Circuits for Signal Conditioning
4.3.1 Wheatstone Bridge
4.3.2 Constant Current Sources
4.3.3 Amplifier Circuits
4.3.4 Current to Voltage Converter



5. Data Acquisition System and Safety Measures

5.1 DAS Requirements
5.2 Computer Based DAS: Overview
5.3 Design Methodology of PC based DAS
5.3.1 Operating Voltage
5.3.2 Interfacing Circuits
5.3.3 Signal Cables and Connectors
5.3.4 Data Acquisition Cards Analog to Digital Converters Digital to Analog Converters Digital Input/Output Boards Interfacing
5.3.5 Data Acquisition Software
5.4 Implementation of PC based DAS
5.4.1 System Hardware
5.4.2 Graphical User’s Interfaces
5.4.3 Safety Interlocks Chlorine Safety Measures Iodine Safety Measures Safety for Hydrogen peroxide, BHP and Toluene Safety for HF/DF Laser Safety for High Pressure in CO2 GDL Safety in Laser Operation
5.5 Performance Testing of Chemical Gas Lasers
5.5.1 Direct Parameter Analysis
5.5.2 Derived Parameter Analysis Iodine Flow Rates Mach Number



6. Analysis of Uncertainty in Measurement

6.1 Uncertainty Methodology
6.1.1 Define Measurement Process
6.1.2 Sources of Error
6.1.3 Model Generation
6.2 Uncertainty Estimates
6.2.1 Direct Parameter Measurement
6.2.2 Derived (Multivariate) Parameter Measurement Mach Number Small Signal Gain Molar Gas Flow Rate Specie Concentration




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