bullet Handbook of Laboratory Measurements and Instrumentation



  Title: Handbook of Laboratory Measurements and Instrumentation

  Authors: Maria Teresa Restivo, Fernando Gomes de Almeida, Maria de Fαtima Chouzal, Joaquim Gabriel Mendes and Antσnio Mendes Lopes

  Publisher: International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing

  Format: printable pdf (Acrobat),  234 pages + media files

  Pubdate: 19 May 2011

  BN: 20110509-XX

  ISBN: 978-84-615-1138-9




Handbook of Laboratory Measurements and Instrumentation


 Book Description


Instrumentation is vital for the design and implementation of measuring, monitoring and actuation systems and in data acquisition and processing, playing nowadays a fundamental role in many technological areas, as well as in those of certification, control and information.


The increasing demand of experimental accuracy in all scientific areas makes instrumentation for measurement a crucial component, particularly in higher education curricula with a strong technological element, being also essential at research and development level.


The Handbook of Laboratory Measurements and Instrumentation presents experimental and laboratory activities with an approach as close as possible to reality, even offering remote access to experiments, providing to the reader an excellent tool for learning laboratory techniques and methodologies. Book includes dozens videos, animations and simulations following each of chapters. It makes the title very valued and different from existing books on measurements and instrumentation.


This unique methodological book comprises 13 Chapters. Each one presents a clearly defined learning objective, the essential concepts and a step-by-step guide for performing the experimental activity, various complementary multimedia contents and a final synthesis. The set of open questions that closes each module is intended to provide formative assessment.



Book is intended:

  • to stimulate hands-on activity

  • to contribute to the uniform use of concepts and definitions based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology

  • to introduce the user to the manipulation of equipment and devices for experimental tasks and to methods and procedures for measuring physical quantities of general relevance

  • to promote the critical appraisal of measurement results

  • to explore the working principles and characteristics of the sensors and transducers more commonly used in laboratory and industrial applications

  • to clarify important features of signal conditioning and transmission and data acquisition and processing

  • to introduce the concept of virtual instrumentation together with web monitoring and actuation by providing access to remote experiments


The Handbook of Laboratory Measurements and Instrumentation significantly contributes to the dissemination of experimental activity in engineering education and to facilitate the conception, tuning and exploration of experimental systems for laboratory training. The full technical description of the equipment is provided to make the setups easily reproducible. Engineers, technicians and students who are working in measuring laboratories will find plenty of practical information here for solving daily problems.









1. Use of Generic Laboratory Equipment

1.1 Experimental Procedure
1.1.1 Use of multimeters Resistance measurement Current measurement Voltage measurement
1.1.2. Use of oscilloscopes, function generators and frequency meters
1.1.3. Simulation of a stabilized power supply
1.2 Synthesis
1.3 Acquired Knowledge

Appendix 1

Resistance Measurement Using the 2- and 4-wire Methods
    2-wire method
    4-wire method

Appendix 2

Frequency Measurement
    Frequency measurement mode
    Period measurement mode

Appendix 3

Stabilized Power Supply
    Working modes



2. Dimensional Measurement

2.1 Introduction
   External micrometer
   Internal micrometer
   Dial indicator
   Bevel protractor
   Threading or pitch gauge
2.2 Experimental Procedure
2.2.1 Dimensional measurement Measurement of external and internal dimensions and depths Angular measurement Threading measurement
2.2.2 Dimensional verification
2.3 Synthesis
2.4 Acquired Knowledge



3. Data Acquisition

3.1 Introduction
   Data acquisition and control technologies
   Virtual instrumentation
   A/D and D/A converter cards
   Some specifications of A/D converter cards
   Some specifications of D/A converter cards
3.2 Experimental Procedure
3.2.1. Acquisition of DC signals Acquisition of a 0V DC signal Acquisition of the DC signal from a battery
3.2.2 Acquisition of AC signals
3.2.3 Development of a virtual instrument
3.3 Synthesis
3.4 Acquired Knowledge


    Glossary Terms



4. Bridge Circuits

4.1 Introduction
   Configuration of a measurement bridge circuit
   Operating modes of a bridge circuit
   Advantages of the bridge circuit
4.2 Experimental Procedure
4.2.1 Static measurement of impedance Static measurement of resistance Static measurement of inductance Static measurement of capacitance
4.2.2 Static measurement of resistance – Wheatstone bridge
4.2.3 Transfer function of a Wheatstone bridge Balance of a Wheatstone bridge Bridge voltage for large resistance variations Bridge voltage for small resistance variations Discussion of results
4.3 Synthesis
4.4 Acquired Knowledge


    Analysis of the Linearity of a Bridge Circuit



5. Mounting Strain Gauges

5.1 Introduction
   Principle of operation
   Some characteristics of the resistance strain gauge
   Effect of temperature: self-temperature-compensated strain gauges
5.2 Experimental Procedure
5.2.1 Mounting of a strain gauge Preparing the mounting surface Bonding the strain gauge Bonding the solder terminals Preparation and soldering of the lead wires
5.2.2 Checking the electrical connections
5.3 Synthesis
5.4 Acquired Knowledge


    An Example of Strain Gauge Selection



6. Use of Strain Gauges

6.1 Introduction
   Measuring circuit
   3-wire method: lead wire effects
   Temperature effect compensation
   Other considerations
6.2 Experimental Procedure: Use of a Strain Gauge in the Measurement of Deformation
6.2.1 Experimental circuit
6.2.2 Experimental results
6.2.3 Determination of strain, mechanical stress and other parameters associated with the measurement system
6.3 Synthesis
6.4 Acquired Knowledge



7. Measurement of Force and Strain

7.1 Introduction
   Column type load cell
   Beam type load cell
   Ring type load cell
   Spoked wheel type load cell
7.2 Experimental Procedure
7.2.1 Determination of mechanical characteristics of a material Beam instrumented with four strain gauges integrated in a commercial bridge circuit (beam 1 and beam 2) Beam instrumented with four strain gauges integrated in a lab bridge circuit (beam 3) Beam instrumented with two strain gauges integrated in a lab bridge circuit (beam 4)
7.2.2 Assembly of an electronic weighing scale
7.3 Synthesis
7.4 Acquired Knowledge



8. Measurement of Temperature: Resistance Thermometers

8.1 Introduction
   Temperature: concept and units
   Resistance thermometers
   RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector)
   Errors associated to measurements with RTDs. Connection types of these sensor elements
   Standards and tolerances
   Temperature transmitters for RTDs
   Summary of the most relevant characteristics of RTDs
8.2 Experimental Procedure
8.2.1 Determination of the characteristic of an RTD Experimental results Identification of characteristic parameters and analysis of results
8.2.2 Use of a temperature transmitter for RTD
8.3 Synthesis
8.4 Acquired Knowledge


    Pt100 calibration table (from –90 0C to 549 0C)



9. Measurement of Temperature: Thermocouples

9.1 Introduction
   Thermocouple: operating principle
   Types of thermocouples
   Sensitivity of a thermocouple: Seebeck coefficient
   Thermoelectric laws
   Reference junction
   Compensation cables
   Synthesis of the most relevant characteristics of thermocouples
9.2 Experimental Procedure
9.2.1 Thermocouple assembly
9.2.2 Cold junction compensation
9.2.3 Analysis of a K-type thermocouple characteristic
9.3 Synthesis
9.4 Acquired Knowledge

    K-type Thermocouple Calibration Table (from –90 0C to 260 0C)



10.Measurement of Displacement

10.1 Introduction
   Potentiometric transducer
   LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer)
   Eddy current transducer
   Digital encoder
10.2 Experimental Procedure
10.2.1 Displacement transducers: Setup 1 Experimental characterization of an “LVDT + signal conditioning” Analysis of results
10.2.2 Displacement transducers: Setup 2 Experimental characterization of a potentiometric transducer Analysis of results Experimental characterization of an eddy current transducer
10.2.3 Displacement transducers: Setup 3 Experimental characterization of a potentiometric transducer Analysis of results
10.2.4 Displacement transducers: Setup 4 Experimental characterization of a potentiometric transducer Analysis of results
10.3 Synthesis
10.4 Acquired Knowledge



11. Detection of Proximity

11.1 Introduction
   Eddy current detector
   Capacitive detector
   Hall-effect detector
   Reed switch detectors
   Optical detectors
11.2 Experimental Procedure
11.2.1 Proximity detectors: Setup 1 Experimental characterization of capacitive and inductive detectors Analysis of results
11.2.2. Proximity detectors: Setup 2 Experimental characterization of fibre optic and inductive detectors Analysis of results
11.2.3 Proximity detectors: Setup 3 Experimental characterization of fibre optic, inductive and photoelectric detectors Analysis of results
11.2.4 Proximity detectors: Setup 4 Experimental characterization of capacitive, inductive and reed switch detectors Analysis of results
11.3 Synthesis
11.4 Acquired Knowledge



12. Measurement of Angular Velocity

12.1 Introduction
   Electromagnetic tachometers
   Permanent magnet DC tachometer
   Digital tachometers
   Digital tachometer based on a barrier- type optical detector
   Digital tachometer based on a reflective-type optical detector
12.2 Experimental Procedure
12.2.1 Use of digital tachometers Digital tachometer based on barrier-type optical detectors Digital tachometer based on reflective-type optical detectors
12.2.2 Determination of the characteristic of a permanent magnet DC tachometer
12.3 Synthesis
12.4 Acquired Knowledge



13. Web Monitoring and Control

13.1 Introduction
   A calibration procedure of a temperature measurement system with a Pt100
   System for straightness evaluation of a line in a given direction on a surface
   Mechanical material characterization
13.2 Experimental Procedures
13.2.1 Temperature calibration procedure of a Pt100 transmitter system
13.2.2 Straightness evaluation
13.2.3 Mechanical material characterization
13.3 Synthesis
13.4 Acquired Knowledge







List of Media Files:


Chapter 1

c01_s1 – RTD resistance measurement using 2- and 4-wire methods simulator
c01_v1 – Video: Frequency response
c01_s2 – Stabilized power supply simulator



Chapter 2

c02_v1 – Video: Using a digital caliper
c02_v2 – Video: Using an analog caliper
c02_v3 – Video: External micrometer, dimensional measurement
c02_v4 – Video: Protractor, angular measurement
c02_v5 – Video: Pitch gauge, threading measurement



Chapter 4

c04_v1 – Video: Bridge circuit, static measurement of resistance
c04_a1 – Animation: Resistance change due to sliding contact angular displacement
c04_a2 – Animation: Inductance change due to magnetic core displacement
c04_a3 – Animation: Capacitance change due to variation of the parallel plates overlap
c04_a4 – Animation: Capacitance change due to variation of the parallel plates distance
c04_s1 – Transfer function of a Wheatstone bridge simulator


Chapter 5

c05_a1 – Animation: Strain gauge selection
c05_a2 – Animation: Resistance strain gauge characteristics
c05_v1 – Video: Mounting of a strain gauge – preparing the mounting surface
c05_v2 – Video: Mounting of a strain gauge – bonding the strain gauge
c05_v3 – Video: Mounting of a strain gauge – bonding the solder terminals
c05_v4 – Video: Mounting of a strain gauge – preparation and soldering of the lead wires



Chapter 7

c07_a1 – Animation: Cantilever beam submitted to bending



Chapter 8

c08_s1 – Pt100 temperature transmitter system simulator



Chapter 9

c09_v1 – Video: Thermocouple assembly
c09_v2 – Video: Sensitivity of thermocouples
c09_v3 – Video: Cold junction compensation
c09_s1 – Temperature measurement with a K-type thermocouple



Chapter 10

c010_a1 – Animation: LVDT working principle
c010_a2 – Animation: LVDT nominal / measurement ranges
c010_a3 – Animation: Eddy current displacement transducer
c010_a4 – Animation: Potentiometric displacement transducer


Chapter 11

c011_s1 – Characteristic of a detector simulator



Chapter 12

c012_s1 – Digital tachometer simulator



Chapter 13

c013_a1 – Animation: System for straightness evaluation
c013_v1 – Video: Straightness evaluation
c013_a2 – Animation: System for mechanical material characterization
c013_v2 – Video: Cantilever beam submitted to bending


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