bullet Strain Measurement


  Title: Strain Measurement (Book Series: Measurement of Physical and Chemical Quantities)

  Authors: Maria Teresa Restivo, Fernando Gomes de Almeida, Maria de Fátima Chouzal

  Publisher: International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing

  Format: hardcover or printable pdf (Acrobat), 106 pages + media files

  Price: 89.95 EUR (e-book in pdf format) and 109.95 EUR (print hardcover book). Taxes and shipping costs are included.

  Pubdate: 24 July 2012

  ISBN: 978-84-615-9897-7




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Book Description



The present work, titled 'Strain Measurement', is the first volume in the new Book Series 'Measurement of Physical and Chemical Quantities'. Two new titles, on temperature and on displacement measurement, will be published by the authors in the nearest future.


This first edition is devoted to strain measurement considering its relevance in the engineering field. Invited authors are also contributing to specific topics with valuable perspectives.


The text starts by introducing the elementary concepts of stress and strain state of a body. Next, several experimental extensometry measurement techniques are briefly introduced highlighting and covering the fundamental concepts of the mostly universal one: the electric resistance extensometry using electrical strain gauges. Basic instrumentation theory and techniques associated with the use of strain gauges are presented. Looking forward into modern advanced techniques optical fibre based extensometry is also covered. Taking into account the importance of the evaluation of measurement uncertainties the publication ends with the uncertainty estimation on the measurement of mechanical stress.


The different chapters include several multimedia components such as animations, simulations and video clips.


The authors hope to have contributed with fundamental concepts and technical information on the topic of strain measurement. This contribution has been clearly enriched with the involvement of the invited authors.





This book deals with measurement of stresses and strains in mechanical and structural components. This topic is related to such diverse disciplines as physical and mechanical sciences, engineering (mechanical, aeronautical, civil, automotive, nuclear, etc.), materials, electronics, medicine and biology, and uses experimental methodologies to test and evaluate the behaviour and performance of all kinds of materials, structures and mechanical systems.


During the last few decades the development of computer based techniques, as well as laser-optics methods, nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, among many other technological advances, added new dimension and perspectives to experimental techniques for testing, measurement and all related instrumentation.


The different subjects exposed in this book are presented in a very simple and easy sequence, which makes it most adequate for engineering students, technicians and professionals, as well as for other users interested in mechanical measurements and related instrumentation.



Joaquim Silva Gomes

Professor of Solid Mechanics and Experimental Mechanics







Chapter 1. Elementary Concepts of Stress and Strain


1.1. Introduction

1.2. Stress and Strain

1.3. Linear Elasticity and Hooke's Law

1.4. Shearing Stress and Angular Distortion

1.5. Uniaxial Stress State

1.6. Biaxial Stress State

1.7. Plane Stress State

1.8. Experimental Methods for Strain Measurement



Chapter 2. Resistance Strain Gauges: Basic Concepts


2.1. Working Principle

2.2. Some Characteristics of the Resistance Strain Gauge

2.3. Temperature Effect: Self-compensated Strain Gauges

2.4. Strain Gauge Selection



Chapter 3. Resistance Strain Gauges: Instrumentation and Techniques


3.1. Integration in a Wheatstone Bridge

3.2. Lead Wire Effects

3.3. Compensation of Temperature Effects

       3.3.1. Self-temperature-compensated Strain Gauges

       3.3.2. Temperature Compensation with Half Bridge Configuration

       3.3.3. Temperature Compensation with Full Bridge Configuration

3.4. Power Supply

3.5. Signal Conditioning / Amplifiers



Chapter 4. Fibre Optic Strain Gauges

(José Luís Santos, L. A. Ferreira and F. M. Araújo are invited authors)


4.1. Introduction

4.2. Interferometric Strain Sensing

       4.2.1. Interferometric Strain Sensitivity

4.3. Strain Sensing with Fibre Bragg Gratings

       4.3.1. Introduction to Fibre Bragg Gratings

       4.3.2. Strain Sensing

       4.3.3. Cross-sensitivity to Temperature

4.4. Impact of Strain Sensing with Fibre Bragg Gratings



Chapter 5. Uncertainty Evaluation in Stress Measurement

(written by Maria Teresa Restivo with collaboration of invited author Carlos Sousa)


5.1. Basic Concepts

5.2. Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty: the Modelling Approach

5.3. Uncertainty Evaluation Using the Modelling Approach

       5.3.1. How to Estimate the Standard Uncertainty of Type A

       5.3.2. How to Estimate the Standard Uncertainty of Type B

       5.3.3. Law of Uncertainty Propagation

5.4. Evaluation of Uncertainty Associated to Stress Measurement

5.5. Final Remarks




Media Files List and Locations




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