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Sensors & Transducers Journal 2006






Vol. 78, No. 4, April 2007




Table of Contents

Journal's CD ROM 2006





MEMS Based System-on-Chip and System in Package: New Perspectives


Abstract: Based on modern MEMS technology achievements new sensors systems architecture on the basis on CMOS System-on-Chip or System in Package (known also as Multi-Chip Module) is considered. The SoC consist of MEMS quartz oscillators, MEMS sensors and universal frequency-to-digital converter. It was illustrated how modern MEMS technology make true some past predictions concerning technological and cost factors for moving from the traditional analog (voltage and current) sensor signal domain to the frequency-time signal domain ...


Sergey Y. Yurish


Sensors & Transducers Journal






A Novel Control System Design for Vibrational MEMS Gyroscopes


Abstract: There are two major control problems associated with vibrational MEMS gyroscopes: to control two vibrating axes (or modes) of the gyroscope, and to estimate a time-varying rotation rate. This paper demonstrates how a novel active disturbance rejection control addresses these problems in the presence of the mismatch of natural frequencies between two axes, mechanical-thermal noises, Quadrature errors, and parameter variations. A demodulation approach based on the estimated dynamics of the system by an extended state observer is used to estimate the rotation rate. The simulation results on a Z-axis MEMS gyroscope show that the controller is very effective by driving the output of the drive axis to a desired trajectory, forcing the vibration of the sense axis to zero for a force-to-rebalance operation and precisely estimating the rotation rate ...


Qing Zheng, Lili Dong, Zhiqiang Gao

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA



Modeling Open-Loop MEMS Tunneling Accelerometer Based on Circular Plate


Abstract: In this paper open-loop MEMS tunneling accelerometer was modeled based on a clamped micro circular plate with a tip tunneling at its centre. Mechanical behavior of the micro plate was studied deriving governing equation based on classic Kirchhoff thin plate theory and it was discretized using Galerkin method. Dynamic response of the proposed accelerometer due to step and harmonic external excitation was studied and the magnitude of the applied acceleration was identified by measuring of the changing of tunneling current. Obtained results show that the proposed tunneling accelerometer very sensitive and it can be measure acceleration with very high resolution but very small gap of tip tunneling limit the range of measurable acceleration ...


Hossein Jodat Kordlar, Ghader Rezazadeh

Mech. Eng. Dept. Urmia University,

Urmia, Iran



A Novel Design of Micromachined Horn Antenna for Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Applications


Abstract: A novel design of micromachined horn antenna is presented. Horn excited with a quasi-Yagi antenna. In this paper micromachining process of this antenna, and simulation results of a horn structure operate around 330GHz using Agilent High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) software is presented. The results indicate a gain around 10dB, directivity 10.5dB and resonant dipole impedance 48.3Ω for horn antenna. The micromachined horn antenna is a high-efficiency antenna suitable for applications in millimeter-wave imaging systems, remote-sensing, and radio astronomy ...


A. Ansari, E. Abbaspour,

Department of Electrical Engineering,Urmia University,

Urmia, Iran



Investigation of the Pull-in Phenomenon in Drug Delivery Micropump Using Galerkin Method


Abstract: In this paper, the pull-in phenomenon of an electrostatically actuated circular micropump which is used in drug delivery systems was investigated. The “pull-in” or divergence instability in electrostatically actuated micro electromechanical systems presents a ubiquitous challenge in MEMS technology of great importance. The Circular plate of the micropump was modeled as a thin plate base on Kirchhoff plate theory. The nonlinear coupled electromechanical governing differential equation was discretized using Galerkin method. The effect of number of shape functions on the accuracy of obtained results was investigated. The effects of radius, thickness and initial gap of the micropump on the pull-in voltage also were studied and the obtained results were compared with existing results ...


Ghader Rezazadeh, Tayefe-Rezaei Saber, Ghesmati Jafar, Tahmasebi Ahmadali

Mech. Eng. Dept., Urmia University,

Urmia Iran



Application of SnO2 Nano-powder on MEMS Type Gas Sensors


Abstract: This paper describes a cost effective and new method for preparing SnO2 sol-gel as the basic material for the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) type gas sensors. The SnO2 sol-gel was prepared by mixing SnCl4, propanol and isopropanol in a specified ratio. The produced sol-gel was exposed to two different decomposition temperatures of 600°C and 1200°C. Thermal treatment of the sol-gel resulted in formation of nano-crystalline single phase SnO2 powder having two different grain sizes. The grain size of the nano-powder calcinated at 600°C was about 10 nm and increased to about 80nm when the treatment temperature increased to 1200°C. The samples analyzed by XRD and TEM methods and both confirmed the grain size dependency on temperature. The prepared SnO2 sol-gels were applied on alumina substrates and the prepared samples were tested for sensitivity and selectivity using hydrogen, air and natural gas. The measurement results indicate a decrease in both selectivity and sensitivity of the gas sensor for increased nano-powder grain size ...


 E. Abbaspour-Sania, M.N. Azarmaneshb ,M. Nasserib, Kh. Farhadic

a Department of Electrical engineering,

b Department of Physics, Faculty of science,

c Department of Chemistry, Faculty of science,

 Urmia University, Urmia, Iran



Fabrication of Meso-Porous Gamma-Alumina Films by Sol-Gel and Gel Casting Processes for Making Moisture Sensors


Abstract: Meso-porous g-Al2O3 film may be used as a highly sensitive trace moisture sensor. The crack-free alumina film was developed using a combination of sol-gel and tape casting processes, which produce high porosity, high surface area and small pore dimensions in the range of few nano-meter at uniform distribution. Sol-gel processes are well known in nano-technology and nano-material preparation, but it is difficult to make crack-free thick or thin films using this method. Tape cast methods are used for the fabrication of flexible crack-free thick ceramic sheets. Our objective was to develop nano-structured, crack-free, transparent Al2O3 film a few microns thick, has a highly porous and stable crystallographic nature. A metallic paste was printed by screen printing on both side of the film surface for electrodes to form a sensitive element. A silver wire (dia j=0.1mm) lead was connected to a grid structure electrode using a silver paste spot for fine joining. Alumina is absorbs moisture molecules into its meso-porous layer and changes its electrical characteristics according to the moisture content, its dielectric constant increase as moisture increase. Moisture molecules can be conceived of as dipoles in random state before the application of an electric field. When the dipole orientation was changed from random to an equilibrium state under the application of external field, a large change in dielectric constant was observed. The number of water molecules absorbed determines the electrical impedance of the capacitor, which in turn is proportional to water vapor pressure ...


Kalyan Kumar Mistry

Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute

Durgapur, India



Autopulsed Mini Fluidic Device


Abstract: The fluidic oscillator is a new micro-scale actuator developed for flow control applications. Mixing in micro channels is an important problem because the flow is always laminar flow even though the velocity may be high. The principal constraints when designing a mixer are the flow rate required through that particular section of the micro-device, the fluid properties of the streams to be mixed and the desired level of mixing. This paper describes a new actuator for flow mixing applications with nozzle size equal 1.18 mm. The gas diffusion, mixing is very important operation in the fields of nature and industry. Now, it is desired to improve the mixing. In this paper, first the performance of fluidic oscillator mixer operated by gas is made clear simulation ...


Rachid Khelfaoui1, Boumedienne Benyoucef2, Brahim, Dennai3, Abdelhak Maazouzi3

1LGMT-INSA, Toulouse, France

2Université d’Abu Bakr Belkaid de Tlemcen, Algérie

3Centre universitaire de Bechar, Algérie



Study of Optical Humidity Sensing Properties of Sol-Gel Processed TiOand MgO  Films


Abstract: Paper reports a comparative study of humidity sensing properties of TiO2 and MgO films fabricated by Sol-gel technique using optical method.  One sensing element of the optical humidity sensor presented here consists of rutile structured two-layered TiO2 thin film deposited on the base of  an isosceles glass prism.  The other sensing element consists of a film of MgO deposited by same technique on base of the prismLight from He-Ne laser enters prism from one of refracting faces of the prism and gets reflected from the glass-film interface, before emerging out from its other isosceles face. This emergent beam is allowed to pass through an optical fiber. Light coming out from the optical fiber is measured with an optical power meter. Variations in the intensity of light caused by changes in humidity lying in the range 5%RH to 95%RH have been recorded. MgO film shows better sensitivity than TiO2 film ...


B. C. Yadav, N. K. Pandey

Sensors and Materials Research Laboratory,

Department of Physics, University of Lucknow,

Lucknow, India



Some Spinel Oxide Compounds as Reducing Gas Sensors


Abstract: Four spinel ferrites, MFe2O4 (M = Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni), having various grain sizes (100 – 700 nm) were prepared by sol-gel-selfcombustion and their sensing properties to reducing gases were investigated. The gas sensing characteristics were obtained by measuring the sensitivity as a function of various controlling factors, like operating temperature, composition and concentration of the gas, and finally the response time. The sensitivity of four ferrites to reducing gases like acetone, ethanol and LPG was been compared. It was revealed that CuFe2O4 is the most sensitive to LPG and ZnFe2O4 can be used as a sensor to selectively detect ethanol vapors in air. The strong interaction between ethanol and porous ZnFe2O4 can explain the selective sensitivity to ethanol and negligible sensitivity to the other reducing gases ...


Nicolae Rezlescu, Elena Rezlescu, Florin Tudorache, Paul Dorin Popa

Institute of Technical Physics

Iasi, Romania





Low Cost Ultrasonic Sensors


Vydas International Marketing has introduced the new M-300 family of RoHS compliant ultrasonic sensors. Manufactured by Massa Corp, the M-300 ultrasonic sensor design incorporates state-of-the-art ultrasonic and microprocessor technology to provide low cost precision non-contact distance measurement for factory automation or industrial process control.


Applications for this sensor include, liquid level control, mechanical positioning, roll diameter measurement, web loop monitoring, automatic filling operation, automatic packaging, bulk level control, paper and plastic film processing and many others ...


Cliff Wyatt,
Swan House Passfield Business Centre, Lynchborough Road
Passfield, Hants, GU30 7SB United Kingdom
Tel.: 44 (0)1428 751822
Fax: 44 (0)1428 751833
E-mail: cliff@vydas.co.uk
Ultrasonic sensor



Thermocouple Sensor Measures Extreme Temperatures


The new AKCP Thermocouple sensor developed in AKCP’s research and development labs in Bangkok has the ability of measuring extreme temperatures and will broaden the sensorProbe8Linux and cameraProbe8’s monitoring capability which includes extensive data-logging, graphing, remote monitoring and out of threshold notifications.


AKCP believes by introducing this new Thermocouple sensor, it will open up new possibilities for measuring temperatures in dangerous or harsh environments in heavy industries such as petrochemical and metal processing. Other uses for this AKCP Thermocouple sensor apart from manufacturing and industrial purposes include the cryogenics field, superconductor research & development, semiconductor development and scientific research ...


Jim Jeffords

AKCP Co., Ltd.

Office 9A, Wang Dek Building,

19/1-2 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road,

Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Tel: +66-2-617-8998

E-mail: marketing@akcp.com

Thermocouple sensor



Surface Mount MEMS Pressure Sensor


All Sensors Corporation of Morgan Hill, California has announced the introduction of a Surface Mount Basic Pressure Sensor. This announcement comes as industry demand for surface mounted pressure sensors is increasing. In addition to standard pressure ranges, an unprecedented 10-INCH H2O pressure range is also available with virtually zero position sensitivity. The Surface Mount Basic Pressure Sensor is RoHS compliant.


The Surface Mount Basic Pressure Sensor is available as a gage device with pressure ranges of 10 INCH H2O, 5 PSI, 15 PSI, 30 PSI, and 100 PSI, as well as an absolute pressure device with a range of 15 PSI. The output is ratiometric to the supply voltage and proportional to the applied pressure ...


Dan DeFalco

All Sensors Corporation

16035 Vineyard Blvd. Morgan Hill,

CA 95037, USA

Tel.: 408 225 4314, fax: 408 225 2079

E-mail: ddefalco@allsensors.com

Pressure sensors



Load Cells with Built-in Analog and Digital Electronics


DS Europe is proposing off-center load cells series 500QD that reduce the errors due to force misaligments and can optionally have a built-in analog (outputs: ±5V, ±10V and 4-20mA) or digital (outputs: CAN open, RS485 and RS422) electronics. Measuring ranges are: from 0 to 2-3-6-12-25-60-110-220-330-550-1000-2000Kg. The electronics inside 500QD load cells is mechanically protected, It is electrically shielded and avoids the cost and bulkiness of an external electronics ...


Dott. Dario Piardi

DS Europe S.r.l.

Via F. Russoli, 6

20143 Milano, Italy

Tel.: 02/8910142, fax: 02/89124848

E-mail: dseurope@dseurope.com

Load Cells



Highly Accurate Transmitter for High Humidity and Chemical Applications


The new, highly accurate transmitters of the EE33 series are designed for fast and reliable measurement of relative humidity, dew point temperature, absolute humidity and six more climatic measuring quantities under the most demanding conditions. Neither condensation nor heavy chemical pollutions will affect prompt and reliable measurements. Process pressures as high as 100bar (1450psi) and continuous high humidity are also no problem for the EE33 series.


The core of this transmitter is the new monolithic measurement cell type HMC1, manufactured in thin-film technology by E+E Elektronik. Chemical contamination and also condensation will actually evaporate due to the innovative design of the HMC1 measurement cell. The monolithic construction of the sensor allows a fast return to normal conditions and a continuation of the measurement ...


Werner Hentscholek,

E+E Elektronik GmbH

Langwiesen 7, A-4209 Engerwitzdorf, Austria

Tel.: +43-7235-605-0

Fax: +43-7235-605-8

E-mail: info@epluse.com

EE33 series humidity transmitter



New Diesel and Gas Engine Combustion Pressure Sensors


Depew, NY, USAPCB Piezotronics, Inc. (PCB®) has introduced a new series 175 of dynamic pressure sensors, ideal for monitoring dynamic combustion pressure in diesel and natural gas powered engines and other reciprocating equipment. Proper monitoring of engines and machinery using these sensors allows for extended maintenance intervals, improved fuel efficiency, and lower NOx emissions. Sensors feature piezoelectric sensing elements with very fast response times, and are best suited for continuous monitoring or periodic walk-around cylinder balancing. Intrinsically safe versions are available for explosive gas atmospheres ...


Bob Metz

Pressure Division Product Manager

Tel.: (716) 684-0002 ext. 2683

Fax: (716) 686-9129

E-mail: pressure@pcb.com

Dynamic pressure sensor



Piezoelectric Sensor Signal Conditioner for Automotive and Aerospace Component


Depew, NY, USA – PCB Piezotronics, Inc. (PCB®) has introduced Model 482C54, a compact, full-featured, benchtop signal conditioner for ICP®, IEPE, and charge output piezoelectric sensors. The signal conditioner is compatible with accelerometers, microphones, pressure transducers, force sensors and strain sensors.  Additionally, it can accept a direct voltage input signal, allowing it to be used with most voltage sensor signals. The unit has been designed for use in general purpose vibration testing, automotive and aerospace component testing, and HALT/HASS/ESS applications ...


Craig Aszkler,

PCB Piezotronics, Inc.

3425 Walden Avenue, Depew, New York 14043-2495 USA

Tel.: (888) 684-0013,

Fax: (716) 685-3886

E-mail: caszkler@pcb.com

Signal conditioner



Industry First Compact Reverse Pulse Plating Controller for Research and Development Applications in MEMS and Nanotechnology


Laguna Beach, CA March 31, 2007 - Kebaili Corporation announced the release of the CPG-500 Series, the industry first compact current pulse generator, specifically designed for electrodeposition applications, such as (direct current) DC plating, pulse plating, and periodic reverse pulse plating for a variety of applications in MEMS and nanotechnology.


According to Dr. Mo Kebaili, Chief Technology Officer of Kebaili Corporation, commercially available reverse pulse plating systems and potentiostat/galvanostat are typically large and usually not optimized for cleanroom environments. The CPG-500 was ergonomically designed in a compact unit, and optimized for end-user applications in MEMS and nanotechnologies ...


Mo Kebaili, Ph.D.

Chief Technology Officer

Kebaili Corporation

316 Magnolia Drive

Laguna Beach, California

92651-1752 USA

Tel: 949-494-5892

E-mail: mo@kebaili.com

CPG-500 pulse generator



 Ultra-Compact, Four Channel Temperature Controllers Include Fieldbus Communications


Telford UK - March 2007 - Gefran's new GFX4 and GXFTERM04 multi-channel temperature controllers provide precise and rapid control for up to four temperature zones and provides inputs for four additional analogue signals. The range includes several fieldbus communication options and includes advanced diagnostics for demanding process automation applications such as packaging, wrapping and welding machinery.


Available in a choice of PID control only versions or with integrated relays and provision for current transformers and fuses, the ultra-compact modules are designed for fast and simple installation with configurable universal inputs, manual and autotuning functions, connections via  pluggable connectors, and DIN rail mounting ...


Gefran SIEI UK Limited

7 Pearson Road

Central Park

Telford, TF2 9TX

Tel: 08452 604555, fax: 08452 677455

E-mail: sales@gefran.co.uk

Temperature controllers



Strain Gauges Monitoring Over USB


Windmill Software Ltd announces their 751 SBox which lets a PC monitor four strain gauges. It connects to the computer over a USB cable and comes with the Windmill data acquisition and control software suite. Windmill designed the SBox to be really easy to set-up and use. Putting everything in just one box means that it is ideal for mobile applications, or for moving from place to place.


When the Windmill software takes a reading from a strain gauge bridge, it automatically monitors excitation voltage and calculates the measurement in microstrain. This eliminates errors due to changes in excitation voltage. Users can also set a zero reference level and monitor changes relative to that level. An integrating analogue-to-digital converter reduces noise and the system automatically recalibrates itself ...


Windmill Software Ltd.

PO Box 58

North District Office


M8 8QR


Tel: +44 161 833 2782


E-mail: sales@windmill.co.uk

751 SBox strain gauges monitor



Vibration Transmitter for Displacement Measurements


Germantown, MD – Wilcoxon Research has developed a vibration transmitter with displacement output. The displacement 4-20 mA output signal has a maximum full scale output available of 100 mils (0.100 inches).


The iT230 is ideal for cost effective, online monitoring of case vibrations of machinery.  Many users prefer vibration information in terms of displacement to compare to historic data, and some manufacturers also specify case vibration maximums this way.  The iT230 makes it possible to mount a velocity sensor, such as Wilcoxon’s 793V or 797V, to the bearing case and obtain machine vibration information in terms of displacement. The iT230 converts vibration sensor signals to proportional 4-20 mA output for use in existing PLC/DCS networks. Raw velocity vibration data is also available from a BNC connector on the front of the DIN-rail mounted module for use with portable vibration analyzers ...


Courtney Schlapo,

Marketing Communications

Wilcoxon Research

Tel.: 281 213 8238

E-mail: cschlapo@wilcoxon.com

Vibration Transmitter iT230





Multisensor Data and Information Processing

(Special Issue, August 2005)


S&T Special Issue's cover





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