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Sensors & Transducers Journal 2006





Vol. 76, No. 2, February 2007




Table of Contents

Journal's CD ROM 2006





Biosensors: Future Analytical Tools


Biosensors offer considerable promises for attaining the analytic information in a faster, simpler and cheaper manner compared to conventional assays. Biosensing approach is rapidly advancing and applications ranging from metabolite, biological/ chemical warfare agent, food pathogens and adulterant detection to genetic screening and programmed drug delivery have been demonstrated. Innovative efforts, coupling micromachining and nanofabrication may lead to even more powerful devices that would accelerate the realization of large-scale and routine screening. With gradual increase in commercialization a wide range of new biosensors are thus expected to reach the market in the coming years ...


Vikas, Anjum, C. S. Pundir

Maharashi Dayanand University, India



Advances in Biosensing Methods


A fractal analysis is presented for the binding and dissociation (if applicable) kinetics of analyte-receptor reactions occurring on biosensor surfaces. The applications of the biosensors have appeared in the recent literature. The examples provided together provide the reader with a perspective of the advances in biosensors that are being used to detect analytes of interest. This should also stimulate interest in applying biosensors to other areas of application.


The fractal analysis limits the evaluation of the rate constants for binding and dissociation (if applicable) for the analyte-receptor reactions occurring in biosensor surfaces. The fractal dimension provides a quantitative measure of the degree of heterogeneity on the biosensor surface. Predictive relations are presented that relate the binding co-efficient with the degree of heterogeneity or the fractal dimension on the biosensor surface ...


Reema Taneja, Kennon C. Shelton, Raymond Carlisle, Ajit Sadana

University of Mississippi, USA



Interface Layering Phenomena in Capacitance Detection of DNA with Biochips


Reliable DNA detection is of great importance for the development of the Lab-on-chip technology. The effort of the most recent projects on this field is to integrate all necessary operations, such as sample preparation (mixing, PCR amplification) together with the sensor user for DNA detection. Among the different ways to sense the DNA hybridization, fluorescence based detection has been favored by the market. However, fluorescence based approaches require that the DNA targets are labeled by means of chromophores. As an alternative label-free DNA detection method, capacitance detection was recently proposed by different authors. While this effect has been successfully demonstrated by several groups, the model used for data analysis is far too simple to describe the real behavior of a DNA sensor. The aim of the present paper is to propose a different electrochemical model to describe DNA capacitance detection ...


Sandro Carraraa, Frank K. Gürkaynakb, Carlotta Guiduccic, Claudio Stagnic, Luca Beninic, Yusuf Leblebicib, Bruno Samorìa, Giovanni De Michelib

a Biochemistry Department, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

b Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

c DEIS Department, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy



A Simple and Sensitive Flow Injection Optical Fibre Biosensor Based on Immobilised Enzyme for Monitoring of Pesticides


A simple and sensitive flow injection optical fibre biosensor based on immobilised enzyme for monitoring of pesticides has been developed. The optical fibre biosensor consists of immobilised acethylcholinesterase (AChE) coupled with commercial pH indicator strip. The biosensing process involves the inhibition of AChE by pesticides, where the pH change has been monitored via a pH indicator strip as an optical transducer. The enzyme as a bio-recognition element has been immobilised onto solid-support material (i.e. covalently bond onto preactivated isothiocyanate glass, ICG) and then packed in a thermostatic bioreactor connected to the flow-cell that contains pH indicator strip. In the presence of a constant AChE, a colour of the pH layer change and the measured reflected signal could be related to the pesticide concentration in the sample solution. The performance of the flow injection optical biosensor system has been optimized, including chemical and physical parameters. The calibration plot of the inhibition for the determination of organophosphate pesticides (dimethoate) and carbamate pesticide (propoxur) were in the range of 50 to 1000 µg/l for dimethoate and 10 to 100 µg/l for propoxur. The biosensor allows lower detection limits, calculated at I10%, for propoxur (4.9 µg/l) than for dimethoate (24 µg/l), and produces highly reproducible response (RSD<1.5%) and readily reversible in the case of carbamate pesticide. While in the case of organophosphate, the regeneration has been possible by treatment with hydroxylamine solution. The flow injection optical fibre biosensor system has been successfully applied for the determination of pesticides in the real water samples ...


B. Kuswandi N. W. Suwandari

University of Jember, Indonesia



Design and Characterization of a Solid-State Piezoelectric Transducer Chemical Sensor for Chromium Ions Contamination in Water


The current need for Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) is portable sensors, which could be used for long time monitoring of our environment [1-5]. This includes sensors for identifying contaminated water with poisonous ions. Thus, this paper is reporting on design and characterization of solid-state piezoelectric transducer chemical sensors for detecting chromium ions in the water. For calibration purpose, two similar sensors were designed and tested before and after being loaded with analytical solution. Analysis part included RBS, ICP, and electrical characterization. The results obtained from the first sensor showed that the change in small signal voltages were proportional to the mass of purified water added to the top of chromium electrode. The result obtained from the second sensor proved it to be very selective to chromium ions suspended in the solution. Finally, it was concluded that sensor 2 could be used to detect more than 0.37 ppm of chromium ions concentration in the water ...


Selemani Seif

Alabama A & M University, USA



Influence of Liquid Petroleum Gas on the Electrical Parameters of the WO3 Thick Film


In this work, the WO3 thick films were prepared by standard screen-printing technology. These films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Influence of LPG on the electrical properties of the prepared WO3 thick film is reported. It was observed that the slope of the Arrhenius curves of the WO3 thick film decreased as the medium changed from pure air to 100 ppm LPG in air. From I-V characteristics, it was observed that the WO3 thick film exhibit highest sensitivity to 50 ppm LPG in air at 400oC ...


R. S. Khadayate b, J. V. Sali a and P. P. Patil a

 North Maharashtra University, India

bCommerce and M.D. Science College, India



Synthesis, Characterization and Acetone Sensing Properties of Novel Strontium(II)-added ZnAl2O4 Composites


Strontium(II)-added ZnAl2O4 composites prepared by sol-gel technique were tested for the detection of acetone vapors. XRD, SEM and BET surface area measurements were employed to identify the structural phases and surface morphology of the composites. The composites were prepared with the molar ratios of Zn: Sr as (1.0: 0.0, 0.8:0.2, 0.6:0.4, 0.4:0.6, 0.2:0.8, 0.0:1.0) keeping the aluminium molar ratio as constant for all the compositions and were labeled as ZnSA1, ZnSA2, ZnSA3, ZnSA4, ZnSA5 and ZnSA6 respectively. The samples sintered at 900oC for 5 h were subjected to dc resistance measurements from room temperature to 200oC to study the acetone vapor detection characteristics. The results revealed that the sensitivity (Sf) increased from room temperature to 150 oC and thereafter decreased. The sensitivity increased with acetone concentration from 100-5000 ppm at an optimum temperature of 150oC. The composite with higher Sr(II) content on ZnAl2O4 matrix (ZnSA5) showed the best sensitivity to acetone detection ...


J. Judith Vijaya1, L. John Kennedy2, G. Sekaran2, K.S. Nagaraja1

1Loyola Institute of Frontier Energy (LIFE), India

2 Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India





Investigating Solids, Liquids and Gases by Surface Photo-Charge Effect (SPCE)


Abstract: The effect: the interaction of every solid with electromagnetic field induces an alternating potential difference with the same frequency as the frequency of the incident field.


Experimentally, the potential difference between the irradiated sample and the common electric ground of the system was measured. An important feature of the SPCE is its significant dependence on the specific properties of the irradiated sample. This fact reveals vast opportunities for rapid and contactless analysis of solids, liquids and gases.


In contrast to other similar effects, the SPCE is characteristic of all kinds of solids and this makes it very interesting from scientific as well as from practical point of view ...


Ognyan Ivanov

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria






Triaxial Accelerometer SMB380 – Talented Digital Sensor for New Applications


With the new SMB380 acceleration sensor, Bosch Sensortec is adding an extremely small digital sensor with a customized setting function to its product line of triaxial sensors. The SMB380, which is also specifically developed for consumer electronics, is Bosch Sensortec's fifth sensor within 18 months. The SMB380 is especially suitable for human machine interfaces (HMI), free-fall detection, as well as mobile and ultra-low-power applications. The sensor will be available as an engineering sample from January 2007. Bosch Sensortec plans to start series production in June 2007.


The SMB380 generates a 10bit output signal which is transmitted via a serial interface that is programmable in I2C or SPI mode. In addition, the sensor features an interrupt signal. Different measurement ranges can be configured using the serial interface: ±2 g, ±4 g, and ±8 g ...


Julia Patzelt

Bosch Sensortec

Gerhard-Kindler Strasse 8

72770 Reutlingen - Germany

Tel.: +49 (0) 7121 35 35 921, fax: +49 (0) 711 811 514 35 921

E-mail: Julia.Patzelt@bosch-sensortec.com

Accelerometer SMB380



Miniature Dynamic Pressure Sensors for Diesel & Gas Engine Combustion


January 22, 2007, Depew, NY, USA - PCB Piezotronics, Inc. has introduced Series 105, a new family of ICP® miniature dynamic pressure sensors, ideal for monitoring dynamic combustion pressure in diesel and natural gas powered engines, and other reciprocating equipment. Proper monitoring allows for extended maintenance intervals, improved fuel efficiency, and lower NOx emissions. Sensors feature piezoelectric sensing elements with very fast response times, and are best suited for continuous monitoring or periodic walk-around cylinder balancing. Additionally, Series 105 features a 4.2 mm diaphragm and M5 thread, easily mounted internal to the engine.


With no moving parts and solid-state construction, their durability is unsurpassed by any other type of pressure sensor. Frequency response may be tailored for use on low or high-speed engines. Series 105 pressure sensors have ranges to 3,600 psi (250 bar) and a max pressure of 4,000 psi (300 bar). Well suited for high temperatures up to +570 °F (+300 °C), the sensors are packaged in stainless steel housings, with rugged cables, integral charge amplifiers, and connectors. Intrinsically safe versions are also available for explosive gas atmospheres ...


Bob Metz,

Pressure Product Manager

PCB Piezotronics, Inc.

3425 Walden Avenue

Depew, NY  14043-2495 USA

Tel.: 716-684-0002 ext. 2683, fax: 716-686-9129

E-mail: pressure@pcb.com

Series 105 pressure sensor



Low-cost, High Output Accelerometer for Vehicle Crash and Impact Test Applications


The Endevco model 7285 utilizes a high-output, micro-machined, monolithic sensing element which features integrated mechanical stops to deliver the most rugged, reliable and trusted measurement data available for crash test applications. With a frequency response of 0-4000 Hz, extending down to dc (steady state acceleration), it is ideal for measuring long duration transient shocks. This adhesive mount accelerometer also features a static acceleration limit of 10,000 g and operating temperature range of 0ºF to +150ºF. This undamped device also features a resonant frequency in excess of 20kHz and has the lowest phase shift available to deliver unequaled performance.


Automotive crash tests typically last less than one second which requires interrogation of the widest possible frequency range to obtain the most accurate picture of the event. The 7285 delivers this performance without inducing signal-phase shifts as found in other competitive products which can “muddy” the data resulting in hidden inaccuracies that may render expensive test data useless. By providing an un-damped design with a high resonant frequency, the Endevco 7285 avoids these inaccuracies and reduces the risks and costs associated with repeating expensive tests. In addition to delivering superior reliability and performance, the 7285’s economical price provides the lowest total-cost-of-ownership solution for crush applications available ...


Yeni Hoo,

Senior Communications Specialist

ENDEVCO Corporation

Tel.:949.493.8181 x242

E-mail: yeni.hoo@endevco.com

Series 7285 accelerometer



High Frequency Accelerometer Calibration System


The CS18 HF system from SPEKTRA is used for Secondary calibration of accelerometers, calibrators and vibration meters. The system offers a frequency response range up to 20,000 Hz and a resonant search capability to 50,000 Hz. A high-frequency, air-bearing vibration exciter is used to achieve high performance and low levels of uncertainty. The CS18 HF calibration system was designed to comply with the ISO 16063-21 standard (Vibration Calibration by Comparison to a Reference Transducer), offers traceability to NIST, and will satisfy the requirements for any lab accreditation standard. The high performance and quality standards achieved with this calibration system are desirable for certified metrology labs, engineering centers, research and development facilities, and quality assurance departments ...


Bruce Swanson



Tel.: (949) 636-9688

E-mail: info@spektra-usa.com

Calibration System CS18 HF



Dynamic Pressure Sensors for Turbine Engine Monitoring


February 8, 2007, Depew, NY, USA - PCB Piezotronics, Inc. (PCB®), introduces a series of dynamic pressure sensors, ideal for monitoring dynamic pressure oscillations in turbine engines. Variations in Natural Gas can lead to increased dynamic pressure oscillations in the turbine combustors, resulting in inefficiencies, increased NOx emissions and damaging combustion instabilities. Additionally, these sensors may also be used to detect high-intensity acoustics, pulsations, and pressure fluctuations in pumps, furnaces, and pipes.


Piezoelectric pressure sensors are best suited for detecting and measuring dynamic pressure phenomena. With very fast response times, these sensors accurately measure fast transient pressures, such as surges, spike, pulsations and noise. With no moving parts and solid-state construction, their durability is unsurpassed by any other type of pressure sensor. The Series 171 pressure sensor has sensitivities to 1200 pC/psi (174 pC/kPa), pressure range of 10 psi (70 kPa); and a maximum pressure of 600 psi (4140 kPa). They are suited for high temperatures up to +500 °F (+260 °C) and are packaged in a case isolated housing with rugged, 2-pin MIL connectors ...


Andrea Mohn

Marketing Coordinator

PCB Piezotronics

3425 Walden Avenue, Depew

New York 14043-2495 USA

Tel.: (716) 684-0002 ext 2216

Fax: (716) 684-0987

E-mail: mktg@pcb.com

Series 171 pressure sensor



 Embedded Fuel-Cell Concentration Sensors


January 30, 2007 - ISSYS announced the launching of the world's first embedded density and chemical concentration sensor (Model FC6) based on the resonating tube technology. The model FC6 offers unprecedented measurement accuracy, stability, and speed at a very small size (1.4" x 1.1" x 0.3").


Dr. Nader Najafi, CEO of ISSYS, stated, "We developed the FC6 sensor in response to the urgent market need for a small embedded density and concentration sensor. In particular, the main driving application for this unique sensor was methanol concentration measurement for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) portable batteries. ISSYS is collaborating with Kyoto Electronics Manufacturing (KEM, Japan) to market this sensor to the DMFC market in Japan. ISSYS' methanol sensors will be displayed at the Fuel Cell Expo 2007, http://www.fcexpo.jp held February 7th-9th, 2007 in Tokyo, Japan. We are also looking for companies and investor groups wishing to apply this FC6 sensor to other markets" ...


Doug Sparks

Integrated Sensing Systems, Inc.

391 Airport Industrial Dr.

Ypsilanti, MI 48198

Tel.: (734) 547-9896 Ext. 119

E-mail: dsparks@mems-issys.com

Fuel-Cell Concentration Sensors



24V DC-LVDT Gaging Probes Offer Industry’s Highest Linearity


Pennsauken, NJ, February 2, 2007 - Macro Sensors, introduces a line of 24V spring-loaded position sensors that offer the industry’s most accurate position measurement with maximum linearity error of +0.10% of full scale output.  Available in ranges of 0.100 inches (2.5 mm) to 4.00 inches (100 mm), the American-made GHSE/GHSER 750 Series sensor is offered in a ready-to-use package for position measurement in gaging applications.  Units can be installed in hostile environments, while their wiring is connected to power supplies, indicators and controllers located in remote, safe environments.


Units consist of a spring-loaded sleeve bearing that results in measurement repeatability of 0.000025 inches (0.6 µm) The spring-loaded assembly, along with a 1/2-20 threaded front end, makes mechanical set-up of the sensor into automated machinery less complicated and more cost effective than other sensor configurations.   Electrical termination of the GHSE 750 Model is made through a sealed axial connector while the electrical termination for the GHSER 750 is through a radially- mounted sealed connector for a much reduced installed length ...


Jean Carl

PR Consultant

Macro Sensors

U.S. Route 130 North, Bldg. 22,

Pennsauken, NJ  08110-1541

Tel.: 610-565-2288, fax: 856-317-1005

E-mail: fjcarl@comcast.net

Position sensors



Moisture in Oil Measurement


Transmitters of the EE36 Series from E+E Elektronik allow most accurate online-monitoring of moisture content in oil. That is very important to ensure the safe operation of machines and transformers concerned. If the amount of moisture in lubricating or insulating oils becomes too high then there is a high risk of damages to machines and transformers. The quality of lubrication and the dielectric strength are decreased dramatically by increase of moisture in oil.


Maintenance works can be done on demand and in time when the oil’s moisture is measured  constantly by EE36. Expensive periods of standstill and long lasting repair works will be avoided. A continuous operation of machines and transformers is warranted ...


Werner Hentscholek

E+E Elektronik GmbH

Langwiesen 7

A-4209 Engerwitzdorf, Austria

Tel.: +43 7235-605-0, fax: +43 7235-605-8

E-mail: info@epluse.com

E+E Elektronik transmitter



Infrared Thermometer INFROS 201


Sensing and instrumentation specialists Vydas International has announced the launching of a new lightweight infrared thermometer for non contact temperature measurements. Manufactured by Ditel, the low cost INFROS 201 infrared thermometer monitors the target object surface temperature without any physical contact. It is simple to use, just aim at the object and pull the trigger. As with all Ditel's products, it carries a three year warranty.


The temperature is measured in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit, on the basis of the emitted infrared radiation from the target object. Because of their ability to measure the surface temperature contactless, these infrared thermometers enable the user to detect the temperature of inaccessible or moving objects without any difficulty. Useful for checking the temperature of pipes, pumps, engines, machines, conveyers etc.


The INFROS 201 infrared thermometer has a narrow beam, high optical resolution of 20:1, is very easy to use and can be taken with you wherever you go as it is lightweight and fits easily into your shirt pocket. At distances up to 140mm, this infrared thermometer offers fast 0.3 second scanning of cold and hot spots and precise measurement of target objects as small as 13 mm. These infrared thermometers combine convenience and simplicity of operation with precise measurement and an informative display. The product can be used in ambient temperatures from 0°C up to 50°C and it can measure accurate temperatures over a wide range from -32ºC to +420ºC. Integrated laser sighting helps accuracy when aiming at target objects ...


Cliff Wyatt


Tel.: 44 (0)1428 751822

Fax: 44 (0)1428 751833

E-mail: cliff@vydas.co.uk

Infrared Thermometer INFROS 201





3D Integration Will Affect the IC, MEMS and Image Sensors Markets


The technical issues for innovative 3D packaging at the wafer level are close to be solved. Yole’s latest report highlights the market drivers for 3D packaging technologies, the status of developments, how it will impact the semiconductor food chain. It covers as well equipments market forecasts and technical analyses of the different solutions with extensive exclusive technical explanation, figures and abstracts.


Semiconductor chips face constant pressure for increased performances while still decreasing their size and at the same time their packages must be able to accommodate new functionalities. The ever-expanding consumer electronics market is a particularly strong driver of packaging innovations such as 3D ICs. Today wire bonding is limited in density and performances so 3D stacking with micro-vias (or TSV, “through-Si vias”) seems to be unavoidable in the future for miniaturization first and increased performances after ...


Dr. Eric Mounier

Yole Développement

45 Rue Sainte Geneviève,

69006 Lyon, France

Tel.: +33 472 83 01 80

E-mail: Khamassi@yole.fr

3D Integration






Multisensor Data and Information Processing

(Special Issue, August 2005)


S&T Special Issue's cover





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