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Sensors & Transducers Journal 2006


     Best Articles 2006





Vol. 81, No. 7, July 2007




Table of Contents

Journal's CD ROM 2006





SENSORS+TEST 2007: Exhibition and Conference Report


Abstract: SENSORS+TEST 2007 exhibition and conference took place from 22 to 24th May at the Nuremberg Exhibition Centre. 610 companies (manufacturers and representatives) from 25 countries exhibited their products and services to visitors on an exhibition area on 23,000 m². The SENSOR conferences, held parallel to the fair. It was selected 90 section and 49 poster presentation from 19 countries for the three-day programme.  This report focused on most innovative, latest developments in the area of frequency (period, duty-cycle, pulse width modulated (PWM)), digital, smart sensors and systems as well as on new research results and industrial development projects in the same fields ...


Sergey Y. Yurish

International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA)





Dynamic Sensor Networks


Abstract: The present paper discusses the possibility of using dynamic sensor networks for measurements over large areas. The main idea is to replace static networks, where the allocation of the sensors is pre defined, no matter how, and then the configuration is assumed and maintained, with a dynamic network whose configuration continuously changes in order to cover the whole measure area getting the different measures of the same point within a prefixed time interval. The main advantages are the reduced number of sensors required, a faster recover from damages, the possibility of changing dynamically the area or the subareas of interest, etc. The feasibility of such solution is shown by finding, in an optimal control problem formulation context, the trajectories of each sensor and the controls for such a motion. Simulation results are reported to highlight such results ...


Simone Gabriele, Paolo Di Giamberardino

University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, Rome, Italy



Simple and Low-Cost Wireless Distributed Measurement System


Abstract: This paper describes the design and realization of a simple and low-cost system for distributed measurements. Traditional handheld digital multimeters have been equipped with a radio-frequency interface in order to implement what the authors call WDMM, the basic block of a wireless multi-probe data logger. New functionalities require very few components and result in a cost increase of less than 10$. In addition, also maintenance has been facilitated since tracking data such as working state or last calibration time are available to the user.


Data inquiry can be performed by a purposely designed module that has the same hardware of the WDMM but a different user interface or by a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) or a traditional personal computer thanks to a USB connection. Simple supervisory software has been realized under the LabVIEW graphical programming environment ...


Alessandra Flammini, Daniele Marioli, Emiliano Sisinni, Andrea Taroni

University of Brescia, Italy



Impact of Different Air Protocols on the Use of the Radio Spectrum by Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Devices

in the 860 to 960 MHz Bands


Abstract: This article shows measured results of the different spectra of different protocols using advanced spectrum analyzers and signal generators. These results allow an understanding of the issues involved and indicate why a change from certain protocols that are currently promoted needs to be made as the industry matures. This paper shows that RFID systems operating in the 860 to 960 MHz UHF bands will have the optimum performance ...


Mike Marsh

Trolley Scan (Pty) Ltd, South Africa



Initial Results on Low Cost Microprocessor and Ethernet Controller based Data Acquisition System Developing

for Optical Tomography System


Abstract: Due to high cost of data acquisition card in the market, this research concentrates on developing a high speed, low cost microprocessor and Ethernet controller based data acquisition for optical tomography system. Microprocessor is the main core to control the sensor circuitry while the Ethernet controller has the responsibility of transmitting data to PC and thus insuring the reliability of data. The data transfer rate will be up to Megabit per second (Mbps). In this optical tomography system, a projection geometry combining two orthogonal and two rectilinear in one layer is modeled ...


1Ruzairi Abdul Rahim, 1Goh Chiew Loon, Mohd. 2Hafiz Fazalul Rahiman,

1Chan Kok San, 1Pang Jon Fea, 1Leong Lai Chan

1Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,

2Universiti Malaysia Perlis (Unimap)



PC Based Linear Variable Differential Displacement Measurement Uses Optical Technique


Abstract: PC based linear variable differential displacement (LVDD) measurement with optical approach has been presented. The technique is a good blending of both hardware and software and is basically an alternative method of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). A visual basic (VB) programming is used for this PC based measurement. Here the voltage output and the displacement of the reflector can be studied and stored continuously. Theoretical predictions are supported by experimental results. This technique can be used for the measurement of some non-electrical parameters e.g. force, torque and liquid level etc. ...


Tapan Kumar MAITI, Prasenjit PAUL, Indrajit DAS and Soumen SAHA

Transducers and Sensors Laboratory, College of Engineering & Management,

Kolaghat KTPP Township, Midnapore – 721 171, West Bengal, India



Resistance Based Humidity Sensing Properties of TiO2


Abstract: The present paper reports pellets of TiO2 powder used as humidity sensor. Pellet of about 9 mm diameter and 5 mm thickness has been made by hydraulic pressing machine under a load of  4 tons and annealed in an electric furnace up to 100 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C and 400 °C for 3 hour. After each and every time of annealing this pellet has then been exposed to humidity in specially designed humidity chamber. It is observed that as Relative Humidity (% RH) increases, there is a decrease in the resistance for the entire range of humidity i.e. from 5 % to 95 %. Relative humidity (% RH) has been measured by using standard hygrometer and variations in the resistance have been noted by using Sinometer. Porosity of the samples decreases on increasing the annealing temperature. Temperature variation of chamber throughout the experiment is 1°C. Surface morphology of sensing element has also been studied. This material has a very good scope for developing a resistance type humidity sensor for entire range of humidity. Sensitivity of the sample annealed at 400°C is found better than other sensing elements reported in this paper ...


B. C. Yadav, Amit K. Srivastava and Preeti Sharma

Lucknow University, India



Al2O3-modified ZnO Based Thick Film Resistors for H2-gas Sensing


Abstract: Thick films of pure and Al2O3 doped ZnO were prepared by screen printing technique. The gas sensing performance of these films for various gases was tested. Both pure and Al2O3-doped ZnO based sensors showed highest responses to H2 gas with poor response to former as compared to later. Al2O3 (3 wt %) doped ZnO thick films showed response to H2 gas as high as 143 while pure ZnO thick films showed poor (28) to H2 gas. Doped ZnO showed quick response and fast recovery to H2 gas. The quick response and fast recovery are the main features of this sensor. The effects of microstructure and additive concentration on the gas response, selectivity, response time and recovery time of the sensor in the presence of H2 gas were studied and discussed ...


D. R. Patil, L. A. Patil,

Materials Research Lab, Pratap College, India



Effect of Residual Stress on Divergence Instability of Rectangular Microplate Subjected to Nonlinear Electrostatic Pressure


Abstract: In this paper, the effect of residual stress on divergence instability of a rectangular microplate subjected to a nonlinear electrostatic pressure for different geometrical properties has been presented. After deriving the governing equation and using of Step-by-Step Linearization Method (SSLM), the governing nonlinear equation has been linearized. By applying the finite difference method (FDM) to a rectangular mesh, the linearized equation has been discretized. The results show, residual stresses have considerable effects on Pull-in phenomena. Tensile residual stresses increase pull-in voltage and compressive decrease it. The effect of different geometrical properties on divergence instability has also been studied ...


1Ghader Rezazadeh, 2Yashar Alizadeh, 3Hadi Yagubizade

1,3 Mech. Eng. Dept. Urmia University, Urmia, Iran,

2 Mech. Eng. Dept. Arak Azad University, Arak, Iran



Control of Pressure Process Using Infineon Microcontroller


Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to design a cost effective controller for real time implementation of pressure process using Infineon micro controller (SAB 80C517A). Model Identification is performed and it is found to be First Order Plus Dead Time Process (FOPDT). The performance measure is tabulated for different parameter and it is found that Proportional (P) controller is suitable for controlling the process ...


A. Siddique, M. R. Jayashree, O. Muthukumar, R. Maheswari, N. Sivakumaran

National Institute of Technology, India





Accurate Load Cells with Built-in Analog and Digital Electronics


DS Europe is proposing series 500QD load cells that can optionally have a built-in analog or digital electronics therefore allowing a measure protected from electrical, to avoid bulky and expensive external boxes and to have a pre-calibrated load cell. The built-in electronics, being very close to the strain gauge bridge that generates the analog signal, would allow to have a very high resolution therefore small variations of load can be shown stable on the display.


Main feature of series 500QD are: Measuring ranges: 0 to 2-3-6-12-25-60-110-220-330-550-1000-2000-3000-4000Kg FS; Accuracy: <  ±0,023% (up to 60Kg ) and 0,05 ( from 110 to 4000Kg FS); Analog outputs: 2 mV/V, 5 V, 10 V e 4-20 mA; Digital outputs: RS485, RS422 (Modbus and DSEnet protocols) and CANopen (profile DSP406).


Digital output advantages: Differential data transmission allows high protection against electromagnetic noise, high resolution (24 bit A/D converter), cabling cost saving (parallel of many load cells on a single digital input port on PLC or computer), load cell zeroing (for recovering tare, damages, thermal drifts) ...


Dott. Dario Piardi

DS Europe S.r.l.

Via F. Russoli, 6

20143 Milano, Italy

Tel.: 02/8910142,

Fax: 02/89124848

500QD Load Cells



Monolithic Sensor for Measuring Humidity and Temperature


E+E Elektronik GmbH has succeeded in producing the first ever true monolithic humidity / temperature sensor – the HMC01. The HMC01 design is extraordinary, because on one and the same thin glass substrate the temperature sensor and directly above the humidity sensor is located.


Because of its true monolithic design, the HMC01 combines the outstanding properties of the high-quality capacitive humidity sensor, for which E+E Elektronik is well known, with the additional function of a temperature sensor on a single substrate, providing a number of technical advantages ...


Werner Hentscholek,

E+E Elektronik GmbH

Langwiesen 7

A-4209 Engerwitzdorf, Austria

Tel.: +43 7235-605-0, Fax: +43 7235-605-8

E-mail: info@epluse.com

Humidity and Temperature sensor HMC01



Miniature, High-Sensitivity, High-Resonance, Piezoresistive Pressure Transducer


The Endevco model 8510C is a rugged, miniature, high-sensitivity, high-resonance, piezoresistive pressure transducer that is ideal for measuring dynamic pressure. Available in ranges from 15 psi to 100 psi, features include a four-arm strain gage bridge ion implanted into a unique sculptured silicon diaphragm for maximum sensitivity and wideband frequency response, self-contained hybrid temperature compensation for stable performance over a temperature range of 0°F to 200°F (-18°C to +93°C), excellent linearity (even to 3X range), high shock resistance, and high stability during temperature transients ...


Yeni Hoo

Marketing Communications Supervisor

Endevco Corporation, USA

Tel.: 949.493.8181 x 242

E-mail: yeni.hoo@endevco.com

8510C pressure transducer



G-Series Redundant Sensor Ensures Maximum Safety


MTS Systems Corp., Sensors Division introduces a redundant version of its G-Series Temposonics® sensors to offer maximum safety in critical applications. Designated the GT, the new sensor measures critical variables by means of two or three independent, functionally and identical measurement systems in a single compact sensor housing.


The GT sensors provide linearity better than 0.02 percent and repeatability better than 0.001 percent. Due to the high linearity, even minimum measurement differences are identified, whereby the error tolerance can be adjusted individually and adapted to the application. The stroke length is also selectable within 25 mm to 1500 mm ...


Drew Smedley

Director of Global Marketing

MTS Systems Corp, Sensors Division,

3001 Sheldon Drive, Cary, NC 27513

Tel.: 919-677-0100

E-mail: drew.smedley@mts.com

G-Series position sensor



Dynamic Pressure Sensor for Gasoline or Diesel Engine Combustion Monitoring


PCB Piezotronics (PCB®) has introduced a new dynamic pressure sensor, ideal for measuring dynamic combustion pressure in gasoline or diesel engines. The high temperature (to +600 °F/+315 °C) piezoelectric charge output sensor, structured with naturally stable quartz sensing elements, is well-suited to measure rapidly-changing pressure fluctuations over a wide amplitude and frequency range.


The un-cooled design measures pressure with low thermal shock error, and ground isolation avoids electrical interference from electronic ignition systems, making the sensor equally well-suited for research and development or monitoring applications.  A solid-state construction, hermetically-sealed housing, and laser-welded flush diaphragm help ensure durability in harsh engine testing environments.


The Model 175A01 pressure sensor is available with a dynamic range to 4000 psi (275 bar), and sensitivity of 1.5 pC/psi (21 pC/bar). Alternate models and mounting adaptors are available for various engine types ...


Bob Metz

Pressure Product Manager

PCB Piezotronics, Inc.

Tel.:(716) 684-0002 ext. 2683, fax: (716) 686-9129

E-mail: mktg@pcb.com

Model 175A01 pressure sensor



Inclination Sensors for Particularly Tough Environments


VTI's T-series inclination sensors have been designed for particularly tough environments. By using automotive industry qualified parts, but improving the specification on temperature ranges from -25 to +85°C, a family of real high performance inclinometers has been introduced.


The SCA61T, SCA100T and SCA103T offer a unique combination of high performance and robustness at affordable prices. The highest accuracy is available with the SCA103T series that uses a differential measurement principle to compensate for all common mode error and noise effects. With the SCA103T a resolution of 0.001 degrees and a long term stability of less than 0.004 degrees can be achieved with an off-the-shelf inclination sensor.


The robust sensing element design with overdamped frequency response of the T-series enables reliable and accurate measurement results even in harsh environments. The best shock durability of the MEMS market provides trouble-free measurements in moving machines, vehicles, airplanes, construction equipment and handheld devices ...


Tiina Olkkonen

Vice President

Corporate Communications

VTI Technologies Oy,

Tel. +358 40 827 8844,

E-mail: tiina.olkkonen@vti.fi

T-series inclination sensors



New Electrically Adjustable Resistor Family


Microbridge Technologies, Inc., announced the availability of a new family of low power, Low TC re-adjustable resistors designed to compensate and calibrate precision analog circuits. Microbridge demonstrated how to calibrate Rejustors in high volume applications at the Sensors Expo & Conference, in Rosemont, IL.


Microbridge has previously shown its capability to calibrate individual electronic devices such as voltage references, sensors or circuits needing adjustments with passive, electrically adjustable resistors. Today's demonstration will emphasize how to calibrate devices and circuits for mass production. The new Rejustors can be used with off-the-shelf National Instruments hardware (NI-cDAQ 9172) to calibrate a wide range of circuits in parallel ...


Bob Frostholm

Vice President

Marketing, Strategic Alliances & Business Development

Microbridge Technologies,

Tel.: 1-888-735-8786

E-mail: info@mbridgetech.com




Signal Conditioning Platform (SCP) pmax Measuring and Monitoring Module Type 5269


For continuous monitoring and measurement of the cylinder peak pressure pmax in diesel and gasoline engines, the new 2-channel pmax measuring module, Type 5269, offers an ideal expansion unit for the universal signal conditioning platform (SCP).


The SCP charge amplifier, Type 5064A, supplies the pmax module, Type 5269, with a voltage proportional to the cylinder pressure. When a defined threshold is reached a warning or a digital emergency stop signal is generated. At the same time the amplifier supplies an output voltage that is proportional to the maximum cylinder pressure of the last cycle. This signal is easily acquired using the usual analog inputs of the test stand measuring system. The pmax module is ideally suitable for monitoring and measuring continuous operation. It can be used to replace high-performance pressure indication systems in many cases. Signal interference, such as pipe oscillations, for example, can be suppressed effectively by an efficient input filter ...


Kistler Instrumente AG

PO Box, CH-8408 Winterthur, Switzerland

Tel +41 52 - 224 11 11

Fax +41 52 - 224 14 14

E-mail: public.relations@kistler.com


Type 5269 measuring module



Low Shear Viscosity Sensor ViSmart™ with USB Connectivity Options


The Sensors & Advanced Packaging (SAP) business unit of Vectron International, has announced the low shear ViSmart™ viscosity sensor with a universal serial bus (USB) connectivity option.  The latest addition to the ViSmart™ product family is designed to provide instantaneous sample and/or continuous, real-time, in-process viscosity measurements for process control environments requiring high resolution and accuracy in low- to mid-range viscosity fluids. The USB connectivity option enables customers to attach the ViSmart™ viscosity sensor to any computer platform via a standard USB port and instantaneously acquire viscosity and temperature data critical to their responsibilities in areas such as fluid process control and equipment reliability for oil condition monitoring ...


Bill Holbrook

Vectron International

Lowell Road, Hudson NH 03051

Tel.: (603) 578-3052

E-mail: bholbrook@vectron.com




New and Updated CANopen Specifications


Erlangen (Germany). The CAN in Automation (CiA) nonprofit organization has released several new and updated CANopen specifications.

  • Most important is the CiA 311 XML electronic data sheet (EDS) specification. It defines the XML scheme to be used for the electronic description of CANopen devices. The specification is based on the ISO 15745 standard. In the future, XML electronic data sheets will substitute the well-known ASCII-based EDS as specified in CiA 306. EDS are used by configuration, diagnostic, or testing tools to get information about the CANopen device to be configured, diagnosed, or tested.

  • The CiA 414-1/2 device profile specifications describe the CANopen interface for weaving machine feeders. They cover simple feeder devices as well as sophisticated multi-feeder devices. “This device profile is the first for modular weaving machines”, said Holger Zeltwanger, CiA Managing Director. “We are going to develop further device profiles for modular machines, e.g. for printing, packaging, and other industries.”

  • The CiA 425-2 profile for contrast media injectors has been updated. The released version 2.0.1 is going to be implemented by several American, European, and Japanese injector manufacturers as well as by several companies producing image processing medical devices. It is the first profile in the range of add-on devices for computer tomography, magnetic resonator, and angiography. It also could be used for ultrasonic devices.

  • The updated and reviewed CiA 303-1 recommendation describing the pin assignment for several connectors contains the first Chinese connector. This 3-pin connector (em069A-3) is dedicated to low-cost devices. The recommendation contains more than 20 connectors to be used for CANopen devices ...


Monika Mack

PR Manager

CAN in Automation (CiA)

|Am Weichselgarten 26

DE-91058 Erlangen

E-mail: headquarters@can-cia.org






Multisensor Data and Information Processing

(Special Issue, August 2005)


S&T Special Issue's cover





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