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Sensors & Transducers Journal 2006






Vol. 79, No. 5, May 2007




Table of Contents

Journal's CD ROM 2006




Standardized Interconnectivity of Sensors for Construction Machines via CAN Bus with the Higher-Layer Protocol CANopen


Abstract: The article provides the functionality of CANopen and introduces the specifications, which define the integration of sensors in construction machines. The paper will finish with a detailed description of an example network configuration ...


Christian Dressler

CAN in Automation (CiA),

Erlangen, Germany



An Analysis of Sawtooth Noise in the Timing SynPaQ III GPS Sensor


Abstract: This paper addresses a probabilistic analysis of sawtooth noise in the one pulse per second (1PPS) output of the timing SynPaQ III GPS Sensor. We show that sawtooth noise is uniformly distributed within the bounds caused by period of the Local Time Clock of the sensor and that the probability density function (pdf) of this noise is formed with 1ns sampling interval used in the sensor to calculate the negative sawtooth. We also show that the pdf has at zero a spike of 1ns width caused by roll-off. It is demonstrated that an unbiased finite impulse response filter is an excellent suppresser of such a noise in the estimates of the time interval errors of local clocks ...


Yuriy S. Shmaliy, Oscar Ibarra-Manzano, Luis Arceo-Miquel, Jorge Munoz-Diaz

Electronics Department,

Guanajuato University, Mexico



Cross-Talk Compensation Using Matrix Methods


Abstract: This article reviews the method to correct for cross talk effects created when using multi-axis load cells. In actual use, these calculations can be set up to be done in real time by the data acquisition or control system, or can be done by post processing the data after the test is complete by using a spread sheet program. This technique will typically reduce the cross talk to less that 0.5% of the full scale capacities of the sensor ...


David Schrand

Sensor Developments Inc.,

Orion, MI, USA



Model Based Evaluation of a Controller Using Flow Sensor for Conductivity Process


Abstract: A flow system with varying dead time is experimentally studied and a model generated using step response. Initially an Open loop test is conducted for identifying the process parameters for which the process system used is a helical coil with downstream lag. The process variable namely, conductivity was monitored using Honeywell conductivity sensor. Based on the dynamic response, the Process is represented by a Second order Plus Dead Time (SOPDT) model.  PID controller and state feed back controller were studied using the SOPDT model. The data obtained are analyzed and compared with simulated values using MATLAB. The established SOPDT model is fitted to the experimental values with an error of less than three percent. Based on overshoot, rise time, settling time, the present study concludes that the state feed back controller is best suited for this flow process ...


P. Madhavasarma, S. Sundaram

Department of Electronics& Instrumentation Engineering

Sastra University, India



Investigation of Pull-in Phenomenon on a Extensible Micro Beam Subjected to Electrostatic Pressure


Abstract: An improved electromechanical model of an extensible micro beams was introduced, in which the effects of intrinsic residual stress from fabrication processes, fringing field and axial stress due to stretching of the extensible fixed-fixed beam were taken into account. When the maximum deflection is less than the thickness, a small deflection can be considered valid, and the stretching can be neglected. But for MEMS switches, the gap is usually larger than the beam thickness, so that the maximum deflection in the middle point is larger than beam thickness. In this paper the effect of axial stress of micro beam on divergence instability or pull-in voltage of the fixed-fixed end type microbeams (such as MEMS switches) were studied. The governing nonlinear integro-differential equation of the micro beam was derived and was numerically solved and was calculated more accurate pull-in voltage. The results calculated from the proposed model agree closely with the measured data ...


Ghader Rezazadeh1, Hamed Sadeghian2, Isa Hosseinzadeh3, Alireza Toloei4

1,2 Mech. Eng. Dept. Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 Space Eng. Dept., Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

4 Civil Eng. Dept. Koy Azad University, Khoy, Iran



SnO2/PPy Screen-Printed Multilayer CO2 Gas Sensor


Abstract: Tin dioxide (SnO2) plays a dominant role in solid state gas sensors and exhibit sensitivity towards oxidizing and reducing gases by a variation of its electrical properties. The electrical conducting polymer-polypyrrole (PPy) has high anisotropy of electrical conduction and used as a gas sensor. SnO2/PPy multilayer, pure SnO2, pure PPy sensors were prepared by screen-printing method on Al2O3 layer followed by glass substrate. The sensors were used for different concentration (ppm) of CO2 gas investigation at room temperature (303 K). The sensitivity of SnO2/PPy multilayer sensor was found to be higher, compared with pure SnO2 and pure PPy sensors. The multilayer sensor exhibited improved stability. The response and recovery time of multilayer sensor were found to be ~2 min and ~10 min respectively ...


S. A. Waghuley, S. M. Yenorkar, S. S. Yawale and S. P. Yawale

Department of Physics, Government Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, India



Characterization of Modified Rosen-Type Piezoelectric Transformers as a Function of Load Resistance


Abstract: Two designs of modified Rosen-Type Piezoelectric Transformers (PT) have been characterized as a function of load resistance, at around their center frequencies. The studies were carried at each applied frequency when the input voltage was fixed as 8 V. The first design in this investigation was marked as (SJ8) PT. The second design was marked as (SJ9) PT. The voltage transformations behaviors observed on these PT have shown that poling alignment played a key role in both step-up and step-down voltage transformation [1]. The results observed from (SJ8) PT proved it to be a step-up PT because the PT layers were aligned well with the poling directions; the results observed on (SJ9) PT revealed it to be a step down PT, because the PT layers were not aligned well along the poling directions [2]. Finally, the optimal load resistance was identified as 100 k for both PT ...


Selemani Seif

Department of Physics, Alabama A & M University

P.O. Box 1268, Normal, AL35762, USA



Lactate Biosensor Based on Cellulose Acetate Membrane Bound Lactate Oxidase


Abstract: Lactate biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing lactate oxidase in cellulose acetate membrane and by mounting over the sensing part of Pt electrode (working) and connected to Ag/AgCl electrode (reference) along with auxillary electrode through potentiostat. The enzyme electrode was anodically polarized at +400 mV to generate electrons from H2O2, which was formed from oxidation of serum lactate by immobilized lactate oxidase. The minimum detection limit of the electrode was 0.1mmoles/L and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.008 mA/mM/L lactate. Assay coefficients of variation were < 2% .A good correlation (r=0.99) was found between lactate values obtained by colorimetric method and lactate biosensor. The self-life of the biosensor was 18 days at 4şC and enzyme electrode can be re-used 150 times without any significant loss in enzyme activity ...


Sumana and C. S. Pundir b

aShriram Institute for Industrial Research, Delhi, India

bDepartment of Biochemistry and Genetics, M.D. University, Rohtak, India



A Novel Noninvasive Sensing Approach of Assessment of Pelt Quality


Abstract: The separation of the upper dermal of the skin (the papillary layer or grain) from the lower dermis (corium) is regarded as a defect in leather making. It is difficult to detect pelts at an early processing stage and it only becomes really apparent once the skin is made into leather. There would be great advantages in detecting the problem at the pickled pelt stage (skins treated with sodium sulphide and lime, bated with enzymes, and then preserved in NaCl and sulphuric acid) so that adjustments to the processing could be made to mitigate the effect. A novel bio-sensor for inspection of leather in a non-invasive way has been fabricated and developed. The sensor has the planar Interdigital structure and the consecutive fingers are connected to positive and negative electrodes respectively. The experimental results show that the sensor has a great potential to estimate the leather quality in a non-invasive and non-destructive way ...


S. C. Mukhopadhyay1, S. Deb Choudhury1,Vijayant Suri1, T. Allsop2 and G. E. Norris1

1Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

2New Zealand Leather and Shoe Research Association



Sol-Gel Processed Titania Films on a Prism Substrate as an Optical Moisture Sensor


Abstract: Sensing elements of the Optical Moisture Sensor presented here consist of rutile structured one to four layered Titania thin films deposited on the base of an isosceles glass prism by using a Photo Resist Spinner. These films are annealed at 450˚C for four hours and then they become porous and sensitive to moisture. Light from an unpolarised 2mW He-Ne Laser of wavelength 630 nm enters the prism from one of its isosceles faces and gets reflected from the glass-film interface at its base. The reflected light emerging out from the other isosceles face of the prism is collected through an optical fibre and fed into an optical power meter for measurement. Variations in the intensity of light caused by changes in humidity lying in the range 5%RH to 95%RH have been recorded. A proper configuration with two layered Titania film for such a sensor yields high sensitivity for it over the entire range of humidity ...


B. C. Yadav

Nanomaterials and Sensors Research Laboratory

Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, India





Silicon MEMS Accelerometer for Implantable Medical Devices


Endevco Corporation has announced the introduction of its new model 40366 surface-mount accelerometer with capabilities that are ideal for implantable medical device applications. Endevco's 40366 adds to the company's arsenal of miniature sensing products which recently surpassed a milestone of four million parts delivered to leading medical device manufacturers with no field failures.


Hermetically sealed with a shear bond strength of 1 kg, the model 40366 delivers repeatability of less than 0.035 pF in an SMT footprint of only 2.05 x 2.90 mm configured as a three-terminal half-bridge. Acceleration through the oblate axis causes one capacitor to increase in value as the other decreases, while air damping creates an inertial system that is over damped. Additional features of the Endevco 40366 include frequency response of 40 Hz, linearity of less than 1%, transverse sensitivity of less than 1%, a +/-2g full scale for measurement of fractional-g accelerations in the presence of earth's gravity, and over-range stops with provisions to eliminate electrostatic sticking when the accelerometer is over ranged. The resultant design provides excellent stability, low hysteresis, and ruggedness ...


Yeni Hoo

Marketing Communications Supervisor

Endevco Corporation, USA

Tel.: 949.493.8181 x242

E-mail: yeni.hoo@endevco.com


Model 40366 MEMS accelerometer



Waterproof Temperature and Humidity Sensor


The AKCP Waterproof Temperature and Humidity sensor is designed to work in wet environments and its revolutionary design uses a specially designed casing in order to accurately measure temperature when submersed to depths of up to 15ft. Similar to our standard temperature sensor it is comprised of a microprocessor controlled semiconductor that will never need calibrating.


The sensor has the ability to measure temperatures from -55 Celsius (-67 Fahrenheit) to 75 Celsius (167 Fahrenheit). The AKCP Waterproof Temperature & Humidity sensor features a response time of 0.5 seconds and has a range of up to 15 feet (4.5 meters) and is fully compatible with any of the sensorProbe8Linux, cameraProbe8, sensorProbe2 and sensorProbe8 products ...


Jim Jeffords

AKCP Co., Ltd.

Office 9A, Wang Dek Building,

19/1-2 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road,

Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Tel: +66-2-617-8998

E-mail: marketing@akcp.com




Most Accurate Linear Hall Sensor for Automotive Applications


Freiburg, Germany - Micronas announced the HAL 82x family of programmable Hall-effect sensors designed to meet the latest accuracy requirements of many automotive applications.


”We designed the HAL 82x to meet the increasing demands on engine management in the automotive industry. Ever more accurate readings of key vehicle parameters means lower emissions and better fuel economy,” says Peter Zimmermann, Market Manager Automotive at Micronas. “The sensor offers highest precision to meet the requirements of next-generation throttle valve position sensors. This reduces pollutant and CO2 emissions.” Other target applications include linear movement measurement, flow measurement, position detection and contactless potentiometers.


The sensor’s high accuracy is based on the 14-bit signal path, the integrated digital signal processing and the ratiometric 12-bit analog output. The sensor also features a multiplexed analog output. With this new output format, developed by Micronas (patent pending), the 12-bit D/A-converter of the HAL 82x achieves the actual resolution of a 14 bit-converter, while avoiding the small quantization intervals. This delivers an excellent signal-to-noise ratio on the output ...


Gerlinde Knoepfle

Zugspitzstr, 10

81541 Munich, Germany

Tel. +49 (0)89 / 69 39 30 08

Fax +49 (0)89 / 69 76 06 13

E-mail: info@micronas.com

Hall Sensor



New High Temperature Accelerometer for Vibration Monitoring


Depew, NY, USA - The new Model 600A13 High Temperature industrial grade accelerometer from the IMI Sensors division of PCB Piezotronics (PCB®) outputs a standard 100 mV/g (10.2 mV/(m/s2)) acceleration signal from its integral charge converter, allowing it to be used with conventional ICP® sensor signal conditioners and data collection equipment. With a temperature rating of +900 0F (+482 0C) at the sensor head, Model 600A13 can be used to monitor vibration on gas turbines, engines, pulp & paper machinery, steel mills, petrochemical pumps, or in applications where elevated surface or ambient temperatures are a concern, thus preventing the use of standard industrial accelerometers.


Model 600A13 is an all-hermetic system, offering a frequency range of 2 to 5k Hz, and installed using an industry standard 2-pin MIL-type connection. It includes a 10-foot (3-meter) integral hard line cable and differential charge converter, and includes a fully traceable NIST-amplitude response calibration ...


Eric Yax

IMI Sensors Division

3425 Walden Avenue

Depew, NY 14043-2495

Tel.: (800) 959-4464 ext. 2377, fax: (716) 684-3823

E-mail: eyax@pcb.com

High Temperature Accelerometer



New Universal Glow Plug Pressure Sensor Simplifies Indicator Measurements


Kistler is now offering the type 6056A pressure sensor for use in glow plug adapters. This new highly precise M5 size sensor with its tried-and-tested measuring element has a miniaturized plug connection to permit installation deep inside the glow plug adapter. Thanks to this innovation, many different glow plug adapters can be fitted with a single type of standard-length pressure sensor ...


Kistler Instrumente AG

PO Box, CH-8408 Winterthur, Switzerland

Tel +41 52 - 224 11 11

Fax +41 52 - 224 14 14

E-mail: public.relations@kistler.com


Type 6056A pressure sensor



Fast Responce Level Sensor


MTS Systems Corp., Sensors Division has expanded its family of magnetostrictive level sensors by combining its expertise in linear-position measurement electronics with the application knowledge of liquid-level installations. The new LLH sensors provide fast response, a variety of output options, and a design that meets sanitary specifications for the pharmaceutical industry. By combining the functionality of both the level and linear position product areas, MTS can offer the benefits of various sensor families in one package ...


Lee Aiken

Product Marketing Manager,

3001 Sheldon Drive,

Cary, NC 27513

Tel.: 919-677-2332

E-mail: lee.aiken@mts.com

Magnetostrictive level sensor



Dynamic Quartz Force Sensors for Automotive Component Durability and Life-Cycle Testing


Depew, NY, USA – New piezoelectric force sensors from PCB Piezotronics (PCB®) are well suited for multi-cycle, high repetition automotive and component test applications. Dynamic quartz force sensors are extremely rigid, allowing high repeatability and over range protection required for automotive and component testing.


ICP® and charge output sensors cost-effectively measure compression, tension and impacts encountered in Life-Cycle, Durability & Fatigue Testing, Impact, Drop & Crash Testing, Structural & Modal Testing, and Penetration and Fracture Analysis. A variety of dynamic force sensor configurations and ranges are offered, including ring, three-component ring, link, impact, penetration, and strain styles ...


Ken Watkins

Force Product Manager,

PCB Piezotronics, Inc.

3425 Walden Avenue, Depew, New York 14043-2495 USA

Tel.: (716) 684-0002 ext. 2637, fax: (716) 684-8877

E-mail: force@pcb.com

Force sensors



High Temperature/Mild Radiation Resistant LVDTs Ideal for Nuclear Facilities, Boilers, Steam Turbines


Pennsauken, NJ, May 15, 2007- Macro Sensors introduced a new series of high temperature and mild radiation resistant LVDTs. The HSTAR 750 Series of 3/4 inch (19 mm) diameter AC-operated LVDTs are hermetically sealed, stainless steel sensors intended for use in environments with high temperatures (400°F) or mild radiation exposure. Units withstand mild radiation at 3x107 Rads for 40 years. HSTAR linear position sensors are ideal for use in radiation resistant robots, beam scraper positioning feedback, nuclear steam valve positioning as well as power generation applications.


Available in ranges of ±0.050 inch (±1.25 mm) to ±10.0 inches (±250 mm), the HSTAR 750 Series sensors feature the high resolution, excellent repeatability, and low hysteresis associated with LVDT technology, as well as the highest sensitivity consistent with good linearity. The maximum linearity error for any of these sensors is ±0.25% of full range output using a statistically best-fit straight line derived by the least squares method ...


Ed Herceg

U.S. Route 130 North, Bldg. 22

Pennsauken, NJ  08110-1541

Tel.: 856-662-8000

Fax: 856-317-1005

E-mail: eeh@macrosensors.com

LVDTs position sensors



Torque Transducer Miniature Design for Easy Handling


The custom designed Miniature Screw Driver Reaction Torque Transducer is designed for easy handling in precise and delicate instrumentation. TEDS IEEE1451.4 can also be added for your needs. Some ideal applications for this product include measuring tightening torque for delicate assemblies using small screws and acting as a feedback device in a precise servo system ...

Navid Mokhberi

Business Development Associate

FUTEK Advanced Sensor Technology, Inc.

10 Thomas, Irvine, CA 92618

Tel.: 949.465.0900,

Fax: 949.465.0905

E-mail: navid@futek.com

Torque Transducer



Liquid Level Measuring System SMARTANK


DS Europe is proposing the liquid level measuring system series SMARTANK that allows to measure the “mm” liquid level as well as the “liter” volume inside a tank. Liquid level is measured by mod. PCS probe, with one or two floats, whose wet parts inserted in liquid are AISI316L stainless steel. Mod. PCS is a magnetostrictive transducer that can measure from 0 to 3000mm max level, it can measure 1mm minimum level change (resolution) and It transmits the liquid level by means of analog or digital outputs (10V, 4-20mA, RS485, RS422, CAN Open, PWM) ...


DS Europe S.r.L.

Italy - Milano – 20143 – Via F. Russoli 6

Tel 0039 02 8910142

Fax 0039 02 8910142

E-mail: dseurope@dseurope.com


Liquid Level Measuring System SMARTANK



New Ethernet I/O Blocks Isolate, Monitor, and Control 48 Discrete Signals


Acromag has extended their EtherStax™ line of rugged, high-density Ethernet I/O blocks for distributed I/O and SCADA applications with new channel-isolated discrete I/O. Channel-to-channel isolation adds further protection from transients and noise. ES2116, ES2117, and ES2118 models process 32 discrete inputs and 16 outputs with a Modbus TCP/UDP/IP interface to a host controller. Acromag’s i2o® technology enables peer-to-peer communication between I/O units. Dual network ports support 10/100Base-TX copper and 100Base-FX fiber-optic connections with a redundant communication path for critical applications. Dual DC power terminals enable use of redundant power sources ...


Karen Haldenwanger

Marketing Communications Coordinator

Acromag, Inc.,

30765 S Wixom Rd, PO Box 437, Wixom, MI 48393-7037 USA

Tel.: 248-295-0866,

Fax: 248-624-9234

E-mail: khaldenwanger@acromag.com

Ethernet I/O blocks






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