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Air Velocity Sensor Protects Electronics from Overheating - Supplied in 1.0 x 0.25 x 0.5 in. package with 0.1 in. pitch, F600 enables electronics manufacturers to anticipate thermal rise before it occurs by directly monitoring airflow at critical board locations. Board level sensor, used for continuous monitoring of airflow in small locations, has air velocity range of 100-1,000 fpm and offers output to sound alarm or reduce system power if loss of air velocity occurs. Communication to sensor is accomplished via I²C or UART interface ...




Articles, Papers and References

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Ph. A. Passeraub, P-A. Besse, A. Bayadroun,  E. Bernasconi, R.S. Popovic, First Integrated Inductive Proximity Sensor with On-Chip CMOS Readout Circuit and Electrodeposited 1 mm Flat Coil, In Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers and the 9th UK Conference on Sensors and their Applications, Southampton, UK, 13-16 September 1998, EUROSENSORS XII, Ed. by N. M. White, Institute of Physics Publishing Bristol and Philadelphia, Sensors Series, volume 1, pp. 575-578.

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B. Hok, M. Tallfors, G. Sandberg, A. Bluckert, A New Sensor for Indoor Air Quality Control, In Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers and the 9th UK Conference on Sensors and their Applications, Southampton, UK, 13-16 September 1998, EUROSENSORS XII, Ed. by N. M. White, Institute of Physics Publishing Bristol and Philadelphia, Sensors Series, volume 2, pp. 1072-1075.


R. Hartinger, M. Irsiegler, H.-E. Endres, S. Drost, K. Rieblinger, G. Ziegleder, Portable and Modular Electronic Nose for Olfactometric Measurements, In Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers and the 9th UK Conference on Sensors and their Applications, Southampton, UK, 13-16 September 1998, EUROSENSORS XII, Ed. by N. M. White, Institute of Physics Publishing Bristol and Philadelphia, Sensors Series, volume 2, pp. 1111-1114.


V. Liberali, P. Malcovati, and F. Maloberti, Sigma-delta Modulation and Bit-stream Processing for Sensor Interfaces, Proceedings of Italian Conference on Sensors and Microsystems, Rome, Italy, pp. 369-373, 1996.


Abstract - The sigma-delta technique is pretty convenient for realizing high performance sensor interfaces. This technique, indeed, besides the conventional benefits produced by oversampling, allows the straightforward implementation of several simple linear and non linear processing operations, useful in the correction of the non-idealities of low frequency sensor signals.


S.Jung, C.Hierold, T.Scheiter, P.Werner von Basse, R.Thewes, K.Goser and W.Weber, Intelligent CMOS Fingerprint Sensors,  In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Transducers '99), Sendai, Japan, 7-10 June, 1999, vol.2, pp.966-969.


M.Hakozaki, K.Nakamura and H.Shinoda, Telemetric Artificial Skin for Soft Robot,  In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Transducers '99), Sendai, Japan, 7-10 June, 1999, vol.2, pp.1042-1045.


Seung S.Lee, Richard M.White, Piezoelectric Cantilever Voltage-to-frequency Converter, Sensors and Actuators A71 (1998),153-157.


G. Y. Tian, Z. X. Zhao, R. W. Baines, The Design of Frequency Output Sensors and their Flexible Measuring System, XIV IMEKO WORLD CONGRESS, New measurements-challenges and vision, Vol. VIII, Tampere, Finland, June 1997, pp. 94-100.


A. Cichocki and R. Unbehauen: Switched-capacitor Transducers with Digital or Duty-cycle Output Based on Pulse-width Modulation Technique, Int. Journal of Electronics, Vol. 71, no. 2, 1991, pp. 265-278.


J.F. Creemer, F. Fruett, G.C.M. Meijer and P.J. French, The Piezojunction Effect in Silicon Sensors and Circuits and its Relation to Piezoresistance, IEEE Sensors J., Vol. 1, no.2, Aug. 2001, pp.98-108.


Powner E.T., Yalcinkaya F., From Basis Sensors to Intelligent Sensors: Definitions and Examples, Sensor Review, Vol.15, No.4, 1995, pp.19-22


Powner E.T., Yalcinkaya F., Intelligent Sensors: Structure and System, Sensor Review, Vol.15, No.3, 1995, pp.31-35.


Prosser S.J., Ernest D.D. Schmidt, Smart Sensors for Industrial Applications, Microelectronics International, 16/2, 1999, pp.20-23

Abstract: Gives a short history of "smart" in relation to the field of instrumentation. Defines the boundaries and suggests that a smart component should incorporate some combination of the elements of an application system which includes some element of control, computation or decision making. It should also enhance the functionality, performance or exit of the end system. Presents a number of examples of smart functionality and smart components and concludes that suppliers of sensors and actuators will take a leading role in the smart revolution.

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Introduction to Sensor Terminology

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K. D. Wise, Sensor-Circuit Integration and System Partitioning

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K. Hejn, A. Krukowski, Insight into a Digital Sensor for Sigma - Delta Modulator Investigation", IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (IMTC'94), Conference Record, Vol. 2, pp.660-663, Hammamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan, 10-12 May 1994


Abstract - Even an ideal SD modulator exhibits certain non-linear behavior. So, its comprehensive description has been both an absorbing and confusing task. Therefore simulation and measurement are key factors for a successful evaluation of the SD structure. This work is about high-quality decimation filters (digital sensors) for SD modulator investigations. They are based on the two-phase (two-branch) parallel structure incorporating recursive allpass filters which is particularly suitable for decimation by a factor of two. Moreover, the repeated use of a basic decimation stage (BDS) makes this structure highly modular and well-fitted for silicon implementation. An important BDS with only three coefficients (1/8, 9/16 and -1/16) has been presented in detail. It was applied in the five stage decimator and can be implemented in CMOS technology. It achieves 20-bit processing accuracy for the passband of 20kHz with little design complexity and no cost penalties incurring in alternative approaches. The paper includes some design results with performance evaluation using fixed-point arithmetic.

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Fully Digital Signal Path Provides Unparalleled Accuracy for Capacitive Sensors

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S. Wolpin, Big Ideas for Small Devices MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS), 2002

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J. Vuori, Simple Method Measures Duty Cycle

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E. Kolberg, A Microphone Frequency Sensor, Encoder, The Newsletter of the Seattle Robotics Society

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Dave Harrold, Soft Sensors, Control Engineering, Europe, June/July 2001, pp. 42-45.

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Choosing the Right Industrial Digital I/O Module for Your Digital Output Sensor

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Sykulski, J. K. and Stoll, R. L. (1992) Finite element modelling of inductive sensors. COMPEL - The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering 11(1):pp. 69-72

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Mike Botts, Sensor Web Enablement, An Open GIS Consortium (OGC) White Paper

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Mayela Zamora, Manus Henry and Christian Peter, Generation of Frequency Output for Instrumentation Application Using Digital Hardware, Sensor Review, Vol., 23, No.2, 2003, pp.143-149
26. Folder icon Alan Melia, Frequency and Time Measurement
27. Folder icon New Device Will Sense Through Concrete Walls

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Ed McConnell, The Future of Virtual Instrumentation, Sensors Magazine, July 1997

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Mark Clarkson, Smart Sensors, Sensors Magazine, May 1997

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Muneeb Khalid, Working at High Speed: Multimegahertz 16-Bit A/D Conversion, Sensors Magazine, May 1998

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Eric Jacobsen, Creating a PWM Output Sensor Using a Field-Programmable Analog Array, Sensors Magazine, May 1998
32. Folder icon David R. Crotzer, Eric C. Cho, Multifunctional Sensors: A New Concept, Sensors Magazine, May 1998
33. Folder icon John R. Gilbert, Stephen F. Bart, Enabling the Design and Use of MEMS Sensors, Sensors Magazine, April 1998

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Michael Cerna, Mendy Ouzillou, Understanding Frequency Domain Measurements, Sensors Magazine, July 1999

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Ed Ramsden, Embedded Microcontrollers, or Making Your Sensors Really Smart, Sensors Magazine, June 1999

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Wayne W. Manges, Glenn O. Allgood, Stephen F. Smith, It's Time for Sensors to Go Wireless, Part 1: Technological Underpinnings, Sensors Magazine, April 1999

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Glenn O. Allgood, Wayne W. Manges, Stephen F. Smith, It's Time for Sensors to Go Wireless, Part 2: Take a Good Technology
and Make It an Economic Success, Sensors Magazine, June 1999

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Eric Jacobsen, A Flexible Evaluation Tool for Sensor System ASICs, Sensors Magazine, February 1999

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Stephen Humpage, A Short Guide to Measurement Uncertainty, Sensors Magazine, October 1999
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Bernard Dulmet, Design of Frequency Output Resonant Piezoelectric Sensors, in Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Laser and Fiber-Optical Networks Modeling (LFNM) 2005,15-17 September 2005, pp. 184- 188

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Sandeep Kumar Vashist, A Review of Microcantilevers for Sensing Applications, AZojono Journal of Nanotechnology Online, 2007

42. Folder icon Mustafa Ertunc Tat, Jon H. Van Gerpen , Biodiesel Blend Detection Using a Fuel Composition Sensor, Paper Number:  01-6052, ASAE Meeting Presentation
43. Folder icon Dentcho V. Ivanov, Advanced Sensors for Multifunctional Applications, JOM-e, October 2000
44. Folder icon Subhas C. Mukhopadhyay, Sensing and Instrumentation for a low cost Intelligent Sensing System, in Proceedings of SICE-ICASE International Joint Conference, Oct. 18-21, 2006 in Bexco, Busan, Korea
45. Folder icon New Digital Sensor with Square Wave Output, Diesel Progress, North American Edition, March 2007, p.94.
46. Folder icon Jack G. Ganssle, VCO Based Sensors, Embedded Systems Programming, June 1991.
47. Folder icon Intelligent Sensing, Practicing Oil Analysis Magazine, January 2008
48. Folder icon S. Chatzandroulis, D. Tsoukalas, Capacitance to Frequency Converter Suitable for Sensor Applications Using Telemetry, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, Vol. 27, No. 1-2, April, 2001, pp.31-38
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Pereira J. M. D., Postolache O., Girao P. S.,  A Self-Adaptable Method to Optimize the Performance of Frequency-To-Code Conversion Based Measurement Systems, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS 2005), 5-7 September 2005, pp. 295-298.


Abstract: Accuracy, error compensation and simplicity of transducer's communication and interfacing are three important topics in the design and development of any measurement system. Nowadays, there are a substantial number of transducers and actuators that generate or receive, respectively, frequency modulated signals. The main advantages associated with frequency transducers include its high noise immunity, high output signal power, wide dynamic range and simplicity of signal interfacing and coding [1-2]. The frequency-to-digital conversion (FDC) is easily performed by any microcontroller, or circuits based on commercial off-the- shelf (COTS) components, without need of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and the same easiness exists when frequency signals are required for actuators. Eliminating the need of ADCs and DACs reduces the cost of instrumentation and measurement systems and eliminates a large number of error sources associated with these conversion devices. This paper is dedicated to FDC based measurement systems, giving particular attention to calibration issues and self- adaptive measurement capabilities that can be used to select a suitable conversion accuracy for a given signal-to-noise ratio. Some simulation and experimental results for a temperature and humidity measurement system will be included as application examples.

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Dias Pereira J. M., Postolache O., Silva Girao P. A Low-Cost Tide Measurement System for Water Quality Assessment, in Proceedings of the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (IMTC 2006), 24-27 April 2006, pp.2226 - 2230.


Summary: This paper presents a low-cost tide measurement system based on a set of two inclinometers. The inclination sensors deliver a DC output voltage which varies linearly with the angle of its working direction. Thus, with two inclinometers assembled in orthogonal directions, it is possible to provide the tide direction and intensity. The tide measurement system was developed for a stand alone operation and includes an RS-232 interface for communication purposes. However, in the present paper an application for water quality assessment is considered and the presented system also includes additional measuring channels, for temperature, electrical conductivity, turbidity and pH measurements. All the measuring channels are connected to a FieldPoint (FP-AI-100) analog input module that works under FP-2000 control. The FP-2000 controller communicates through RS232 with the tide measurement system whose conditioning circuit includes two voltage-to-frequency converters and a universal frequency-to-digital converter (UFDC). Wi-Fi data communication is also provided including an Ethernet-wireless to the FP-2000 Ethernet port. Realtime data processing is supported by a LabVIEW RT software embedded in the FieldPoint controller.

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D. Ramírez Muñoz, D. Moro Pérez, J. Sánchez Moreno, S. Casans Berga, E. Castro Montero, Design and Experimental Verification of a Smart Sensor to Measure the Energy and Power Consumption in a One-phase AC Line, Measurement (in press)


Abstract: A mixed electronic system has been designed to measure the active, apparent and reactive energies delivered to a load in a single-phase AC voltage line. For this purpose a smart sensor (ADE7753 from Analog Devices) was used. A magnetoresistance sensor is used as a current transducer and it is constant current biased by a generalized impedance converter. The magnetoresistance sensor technology provides direct isolation from the mains voltage and ferrite cores are not needed like Hall counterparts. All the measurements provided by the ADE7753 are read through the parallel port of the computer using a LabView application, which will process and present the readings to the user.

52. Folder icon James Wiczer, Connectivity: Smart Sensors or Smart Interfaces
53. Folder icon Lynn Linse, Sensor Trends: Sensor Data as a Distinct Utility, Product Design & Development
54. Folder icon Creed Huddleston, Designing intelligent sensors for use on the "Internet of Things" - Part 1, EETimes Design, June 2010
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Creed Huddleston, Designing intelligent sensors for use on the "Internet of Things" - Part 2, EETimes Design, June 2010

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Charles J. Murray, Smarter Sensors Could Add Intelligence to Everyday Products, Design News, February 24, 2011

57. Folder icon Arsenia Chorti, Dimosthenis Karatzas, Neil M. White, Chris J. Harris, Intelligent Sensors In Software: The Use Of Parametric Models For Phase Noise Analysis, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference ICISIP' 2006, India, Bangalore, pp.191-196.
58. Folder icon Jay Esfandyari, Roberto De Nuccio, Gang Xu, Solutions for MEMS Sensor Fusion, Electro IQ: the Portal for  Electronics Manufacturing
59. Folder icon Carolyn Mathas, Smart Sensors – Not Only Intelligent, but Adaptable





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