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Vol. 259, Issue 5, October 2022, pp. 93-98




Modeling Branched Electrical Circuits with Different Types of Conductivity

1 Nikolai A. PARFENTEV and 2 Natalia A. PARFENTYEVA

1 All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), Moscow, Russia
2 Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) National Research University, Moscow, Russia
Tel.: +7 916 858 8010, + 7 925 0544560

E-mail: nikolaiparfentiev41@gmail.com, nparfentyeva@gmail.com


Received: 31 August 2022 /Accepted: 3 October 2022 /Published: 31 October 2022



Abstract: As a model of a developed circuit with different types of conductivity, the principles of operation of bipolar transistors are considered n-p-n and p-n-p. It is shown that an abrupt increase in the input voltage upon the appearance of a collector voltage is associated with disturbances in the energy balance, when the electron energy spent on the metal-emitter barrier transition cannot be compensated for in the base-metal transition. The balance is disturbed due to the different energy spectra of electrons in base and collector. Fundamental difference in the mechanisms of increasing (in modulus) the base-emitter input voltage with the appearance of a collector potential for transistors of various types are revealed. In is shown that this effect is associated with the sorting of electrons having different average energies in the n-p-n transistor and the mixing of electrons in the emitter of the p-n-p transistor. The concept adopted by us can be useful in the creation of semiconductor devices. It includes not only the properties of semiconductors, but also the properties of metals, with the help of which it is connected to the circuit. Based on the formulated conditions for electrical circuits with compensated contact potential differences 11, an analysis of the phenomena in a bipolar transistor was carried out. The contact differences of potentials in a branched chain can be neglected. 1) A relatively small current value at which the Peltier and Zeeman effects can be neglected (intense temperature exchange with the environment). 2) Constant current in all elements of loop current. 3) The conservation of the value of the average energy of charge carriers. As an example, detailed analysis of contact phenomena in a bipolar transistor is carried out. The fundamental difference between the modes of operation of the base-emitter junction in the n-p-n transistor is shown: at zero and non-zero values of the collector voltage.


Keywords: Branched chain, Contact phenomena, Bipolar transistor, Semiconductor.


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